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1.9} Applications

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 While FLUKA86-87 was essentially a specialised program to calculate shielding
 of high energy proton accelerators, the present version can be regarded as a
 general purpose tool for an extended range of applications. In addition to
 traditional target design and shielding, applications are now spanning from
 calorimetry to prediction of activation, radiation damage, isotope
 transmutation, dosimetry and detector studies.

 Prediction of radiation damage has always been a traditional field of
 application of FLUKA, restricted however in earlier versions to hadron damage
 to accelerator components. The new capability to deal with the low-energy
 neutron component of the cascade has extended the field of interest to
 include electronics and other sensitive detector parts. In addition,
 radiation damage calculations and shielding design are not limited to proton
 accelerators any longer, but include electron accelerators of any energy,
 photon factories, and any kind of radiation source, be it artificial or
 natural.

 The present version of FLUKA has been used successfully in such diverse
 domains as background studies for underground detectors, cosmic ray physics,
 shielding of synchrotron radiation hutches, calculation of dose received by
 aircraft crews, evaluation of organ dose in a phantom due to external
 radiation, detector design for radiation protection as well as for high
 energy physics, electron, proton and heavy ion radiotherapy, nuclear
 transmutation, neutrino physics, shielding of free-electron lasers,
 calculation of tritium production at electron accelerators, energy
 amplifiers, maze design for medical accelerators, etc.

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