-------------------------------------------------------- The first codes of Ranft [Ran64,Gei65,Ran66,Ran67,Ran70a,Ran72] were originally non-analogue and were used as a tool for designing shielding of high energy proton accelerators. The first analogue cascade code was written and published at Rutherford High Energy Lab, where Ranft worked from 1967 to 1969. His work was supported by Leo Hobbis of RHEL, who at the time was the radiation study group leader for the CERN 300 GeV project. The analogue code was called FLUKA (FLUktuierende KAskade), and was used to evaluate the performances of NaI crystals used as hadron calorimeters [Ran70a]. Around 1970, J. Ranft got a position at Leipzig University. During the SPS construction phase in the Seventies he was frequently invited by the CERN-Lab-II radiation group, leader Klaus Goebel, to collaborate in the evaluation of radiation problems at the SPS on the basis of his hadron cascade codes. These codes were FLUKA and versions with different geometries and slightly differing names [Sch74]. Jorma Routti, of Helsinki University of Technology, collaborated with Ranft in setting up several of such versions [Ran72a,Ran74]. The particles considered were protons, neutrons and charged pions. At that time, FLUKA was used mainly for radiation studies connected with the 300 GeV Project [Goe71,Goe73,Fas78]. During that time, the development of FLUKA was entirely managed by Ranft, although many suggestions for various improvements came from Klaus Goebel, partly from Jorma Routti and later from Graham Stevenson (CERN). In that version of FLUKA, inelastic hadronic interactions were described by means of an inclusive event generator [Ran74,Ran80a]. In addition to nucleons and charged pions, the generator could now sample also neutral pions, kaons and antiprotons. Ionisation energy losses and multiple Coulomb scattering were implemented only in a crude way, and a transport cutoff was set at 50 MeV for all particles. The only quantities scored were star density and energy deposited. The electromagnetic cascade and the transport of low-energy particles were not simulated in detail but the corresponding energy deposition was sampled from "typical" space distributions.
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