------------------------------ The two Leipzig event generators developed in the 80's, one for intermediate energies and the other for high energies (> 5 GeV), were a remarkable achievement with great potentialities. In particular the high energy model was among the first developed in the world based on partonic ideas and quark degrees of freedom (specifically on the so called Dual Parton Model [Cap80,Cap80a]). The part of the code concerning hadron-nucleus primary interactions at energies above 4 GeV has been extensively extended and updated since 1987 and is now virtually a new model, even though the physics foundations are still essentially the same. Several bugs and approximations have been removed too. The intermediate energy resonance model has also been deeply modified and its use is currently restricted to few particles over a restricted energy range. The newly developed pre-equilibrium-cascade model PEANUT has progressively replaced this model. The main lines of the work developed mostly in Milan by Ferrari and Sala starting from 1990 can be summarised as follow [Fer96b,Col00]:These was performed in 4 main stages, which eventually led to an almost completely new code still based on the same physics foundations with some extensions high energy models, allowing for a physically meaningful excitation energy and excited residual A and Z calculations stage to be used to describe the "slow" part of nuclear interactions. These actually took place in two major steps describing the low-to-intermediate (up to a few GeV) energy range, while progressively phasing out the improved version of the intermediate energy Leipzig code. This effort took also place in two main steps.
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