------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ At about the time when the last version was frozen (1987), a new generation of proton colliders, with large luminosities and energies of the order of several TeV, started to be planned. Because of its superior high-energy hadron generator, FLUKA became the object of a great interest and began to be employed for shielding calculations and especially to predict radiation damage to the components of the machines and of the experiments. But soon many limitations of the code became evident: the design of the new accelerators (SSC and LHC) and associated experiments needed a capability to handle large multiplicities, strong magnetic fields, energy deposition in very small volumes, high-energy effects, low-energy neutron interactions, which the code was lacking. A. Ferrari (INFN) and A. Fasso` set up a plan to transform FLUKA from a high-energy code mostly devoted to radiation shielding and beam heating into a code which could handle most particles of practical interest and their interactions over the widest possible energy range. This plan was entirely supported by INFN, since after the retirement of K. Goebel, the CERN Radiation Protection Group had decided to stop support to any further FLUKA development. The Leipzig group was dissolved following Germany reunification, but J. Ranft continued to contribute, especially during three 6-months stays in different INFN labs. Over a period of six years, FLUKA evolved from a code specialised in high energy accelerator shielding, into a multipurpose multiparticle code successfully applied in a very wide range of fields and energies, going much beyond what was originally intended in the initial development reworking plan of Fasso` and Ferrari. Just as examples, a few of the fields where the modern FLUKA has been successfully applied are listed in the following:- Neutrino physics: ICARUS, CNGS, NOMAD, CHORUS - Cosmic Rays: First 3D neutrino flux simulation, Bartol, MACRO, Notre-Dame, AMS, Karlsruhe (CORSIKA) - Neutron background in underground experiments (MACRO, Palo Verde) - Beam-machine interactions: CERN, NLC, LCLS, IGNITOR - Radiation Protection: CERN, INFN, SLAC, Rossendorf, DESY, GSI, TERA, APS - Waste Management and environment: LEP dismantling, SLAC - all LHC experiments, NLC - Dose to Commercial Flights: E.U., NASA, AIR project (USA) - Dosimetry: INFN, ENEA, GSF, NASA - Radiotherapy: Already applied to real situations (Optis at PSI, Clatterbridge, Rossendorf/GSI) - Dose and radiation damage to Space flights: NASA, ASI - ATLAS test beams - ICARUS - Energy Amplifier - Waste trasmutation with hybrid systems - Pivotal experiments on ADS (TARC, FEAT) - nTOF This effort, mostly done in Milan by Ferrari and Paola Sala (also of INFN), started in 1989 and went off immediately in many directions: a new structure of the code, a new transport package including in particular an original multiple Coulomb scattering algorithm for all charged particles, a complete remake of the electromagnetic part, an improvement and extension of the hadronic part, a new module for the transport of low-energy neutrons, an extension of Combinatorial Geometry and new scoring and biasing facilities. At the end of 1990, most of these goals had been achieved, although only in a preliminary form. All the new features were further improved and refined in the following years.
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