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18.3} Third generation (the modern multiparticle/multipurpose code, 1988 to present)


 At about the time when the last version was frozen (1987), a new
 generation of proton colliders, with large luminosities and energies
 of the order of several TeV, started to be planned. Because of its
 superior high-energy hadron generator, FLUKA became the object of a
 great interest and began to be employed for shielding calculations and
 especially to predict radiation damage to the components of the
 machines and of the experiments.
 But soon many limitations of the code became evident: the design of
 the new accelerators (SSC and LHC) and associated experiments needed
 a capability to handle large multiplicities, strong magnetic fields,
 energy deposition in very small volumes, high-energy effects, low-energy
 neutron interactions, which the code was lacking. A. Ferrari (INFN) and
 A. Fasso` set up a plan to transform FLUKA from a high-energy code mostly
 devoted to radiation shielding and beam heating into a code which could
 handle most particles of practical interest and their interactions over
 the widest possible energy range. This plan was entirely supported by INFN,
 since after the retirement of K. Goebel, the CERN Radiation Protection
 Group had decided to stop support to any further FLUKA development. The
 Leipzig group was dissolved following Germany reunification, but J. Ranft
 continued to contribute, especially during three 6-months stays in
 different INFN labs.

 Over a period of six years, FLUKA evolved from a code specialised in high
 energy accelerator shielding, into a multipurpose multiparticle code
 successfully applied in a very wide range of fields and energies, going much
 beyond what was originally intended in the initial development reworking
 plan of Fasso` and Ferrari. Just as examples, a few of the fields where
 the modern FLUKA has been successfully applied are listed in the following:

* Neutrino physics and Cosmic Ray studies: initiated within ICARUS
- Neutrino physics: ICARUS, CNGS, NOMAD, CHORUS - Cosmic Rays: First 3D neutrino flux simulation, Bartol, MACRO, Notre-Dame, AMS, Karlsruhe (CORSIKA) - Neutron background in underground experiments (MACRO, Palo Verde)
* Accelerators and shielding: the very first FLUKA application field
- Beam-machine interactions: CERN, NLC, LCLS, IGNITOR - Radiation Protection: CERN, INFN, SLAC, Rossendorf, DESY, GSI, TERA, APS - Waste Management and environment: LEP dismantling, SLAC
* Synchrotron radiation shielding: SLAC
* Background and radiation damage in experiments: Pioneering work for ATLAS
- all LHC experiments, NLC
* Dosimetry, radiobiology and therapy:
- Dose to Commercial Flights: E.U., NASA, AIR project (USA) - Dosimetry: INFN, ENEA, GSF, NASA - Radiotherapy: Already applied to real situations (Optis at PSI, Clatterbridge, Rossendorf/GSI) - Dose and radiation damage to Space flights: NASA, ASI
* Calorimetry:
- ATLAS test beams - ICARUS
* ADS, spallation sources (FLUKA+EA-MC, C.Rubbia et al.)
- Energy Amplifier - Waste trasmutation with hybrid systems - Pivotal experiments on ADS (TARC, FEAT) - nTOF This effort, mostly done in Milan by Ferrari and Paola Sala (also of INFN), started in 1989 and went off immediately in many directions: a new structure of the code, a new transport package including in particular an original multiple Coulomb scattering algorithm for all charged particles, a complete remake of the electromagnetic part, an improvement and extension of the hadronic part, a new module for the transport of low-energy neutrons, an extension of Combinatorial Geometry and new scoring and biasing facilities. At the end of 1990, most of these goals had been achieved, although only in a preliminary form. All the new features were further improved and refined in the following years.

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