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FLUKA: 19} References Previous Index

19} References


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Aar84 P.A. Aarnio, J. Ranft and G.R. Stevenson A long writeup of the FLUKA82 program CERN Divisional Report TIS-RP/106-Rev. (1984) Aar84a P.A. Aarnio, J. Ranft and G.R. Stevenson First update of FLUKA82, including particle production with a multi-chain fragmentation model (EVENTQ) CERN TIS-RP/129 (1984) Aar86 P.A. Aarnio, A. Fassò, H.-J. Moehring, J. Ranft, G.R. Stevenson FLUKA86 user's guide CERN Divisional Report TIS-RP/168 (1986) Aar87 P.A. Aarnio, J. Lindgren, J. Ranft, A. Fassò, G.R. Stevenson Enhancements to the FLUKA86 program (FLUKA87) CERN Divisional Report TIS-RP/190 (1987) Aar93 P.A. Aarnio, A. Fassò, A. Ferrari, H.-J. Moehring, J. Ranft, P.R. Sala, G.R. Stevenson, J.M. Zazula FLUKA: hadronic benchmarks and applications Proc. MC93 Int. Conf. on Monte Carlo Simulation in High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Tallahassee (Florida), 22-26 February 1993. Ed. by P. Dragovitsch, S.L. Linn, M. Burbank, World Scientific, Singapore 1994, p. 88-99 Aar93a P.A. Aarnio, A. Fassò, A. Ferrari, H.-J. Moehring, J. Ranft, P.R. Sala, G.R. Stevenson, J.M. Zazula Electron-photon transport: always so good as we think? Experience with FLUKA Proc. MC93 Int. Conf. on Monte Carlo Simulation in High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Tallahassee (Florida), 22-26 February 1993. Ed. by P. Dragovitsch, S.L. Linn, M. Burbank, World Scientific, Singapore 1994, p. 100-110 Agr96 V. Agrawal, T.K. Gaisser, P. Lipari and T. Stanev Atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 GeV Phys. Rev. D53, 1314-1323 (1996) Aig05 H. Aiginger, V. Andersen, F. Ballarini, G. Battistoni, M. Campanella, M. Carboni, F. Cerutti, A. Empl, W. Enghardt, A. Fassò, A. Ferrari, E. Gadioli, M.V. Garzelli, K.S. Lee, A. Ottolenghi, K. Parodi, M. Pelliccioni, L. Pinsky, J. Ranft, S. Roesler, P.R. Sala, D. Scannicchio, G. Smirnov, F. Sommerer, T. Wilson and N. Zapp The FLUKA code: new developments and application to 1 GeV/n Iron beams Adv. Space Res. 35, 214-222 (2005) Alc00 J. Alcaraz et al. (AMS Coll.) Cosmic protons Phys. Lett. B490 (2000) 27-35 Alc00a J. Alcaraz et al. (AMS Coll.) Helium in near Earth orbit Phys. Lett. B494 (2000) 193-202 Als86 R.G. Alsmiller Jr., J.M. Barnes, J.D. Drischler Neutron-photon multigroup cross sections for neutron energies =< 400 MeV (Revision 1) Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A249, 455-460 (1986) Als89 F.S. Alsmiller and R.G. Alsmiller, Jr. Inclusion of correlations in the empirical selection of intranuclear cascade nucleons from high energy hadron-nucleus collisions Nucl. Instr. Meth. A278, 713-721 (1989) Als90 R.G. Alsmiller, Jr., F.S. Alsmiller and O.W. Hermann The high-energy transport code HETC88 and comparisons with experimental data Nucl. Instr. Meth. A295, 337-343 (1990) And04 V. Andersen, F. Ballarini, G. Battistoni, M. Campanella, M. Carboni, F. Cerutti, A. Empl, A. Fassò, A. Ferrari, E. Gadioli, M.V. Garzelli, K. Lee, A. Ottolenghi, M. Pelliccioni, L.S. Pinsky, J. Ranft, S. Roesler, P.R. Sala and T.L. Wilson The FLUKA code for space applications: recent developments Adv. Space Res. 34, 1338--1346 (2004) Ant96 M. Antonelli, G. Battistoni, A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala Study of radiative muon interactions at 300 GeV Proc. VI Int. Conf. on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (Calor 96), Frascati (Italy), 8-14 June 1996. Ed. A. Antonelli, S. Bianco, A. Calcaterra, F.L. Fabbri Frascati Physics Series Vol. VI, p. 561-570 (1997) Atc80 F. Atchison Spallation and fission in heavy metal nuclei under medium energy proton bombardment Meeting on Targets for neutron beam spallation sources, Ed. G. Bauer, KFA Jülich Germany, Jül-conf-34 (1980) Bad96 G.D. Badhwar and P.M. O'Neill Galactic cosmic radiation model and its applications Adv. Space. Res. 17 no.2, 7-17 (1996) Bal04 F. Ballarini, G. Battistoni, F. Cerutti, A. Empl, A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, E. Gadioli, M.V. Garzelli, A. Ottolenghi, L.S. Pinsky, J. Ranft, S. Roesler, P.R. Sala and G. Smirnov Nuclear Models in FLUKA: Present Capabilities, Open Problems, and Future Improvements AIP Conference Proceedings 769, 1197-1202 (2005) Bar56 W.H. Barkas, W. Birnbaum, F.M. Smith Mass-ratio method applied to the measurement of L-meson masses and the energy balance in pion decay Phys. Rev. 101, 778-795 (1956) Bar63 W.H. Barkas, J.N. Dyer, H.H. Heckman Resolution of the Sigma^- -mass anomaly Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 26-28 (1963) (Erratum 11, 138 (1963)) Bar72 V.S. Barashenkov, V.D. Toneev Interactions of High Energy Particles and Nuclei with Nuclei (in Russian) Moscow, Atomizdat (1972) Bat00 G. Battistoni, A. Ferrari, P. Lipari, T. Montaruli, P.R. Sala and T. Rancati A 3-dimensional calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes Astropart. Phys. 12, 315-333 (2000) Bat03 A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, S. Roesler, J. Ranft, P.R. Sala, G. Battistoni, M. Campanella, F. Cerutti, L. De Biaggi, E. Gadioli, M.V. Garzelli, F. Ballarini, A. Ottolenghi, D. Scannicchio, M. Carboni, M. Pelliccioni, R. Villari, V. Andersen, A. Empl, K. Lee, L. Pinsky, T.N. Wilson and N. Zapp, The FLUKA code: Present applications and future developments Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics 2003 Conference (CHEP2003), La Jolla, CA, USA, March 24-28, 2003, (paper MOMT004), Conf C0303241 (2003), arXiv:physics/0306162. Bat03a G. Battistoni, A. Ferrari, T. Montaruli and P. R. Sala The FLUKA atmospheric neutrino flux calculation Astropart. Phys. 19, 269-290 (2003) Bau78 T.H. Bauer, R.D. Spital, D.R. Yennie, F.M. Pipkin The hadronic properties of the photon in high-energy interactions Rev. Mod. Phys. 50, 261-436 (1978) Bet30 H.A. Bethe Zur Theorie des Durchgangs schneller Korpuskularstrahlen durch Materie Ann. Physik 5, 325-400 (1930) Selected Works of Hans A. Bethe, World Scientific Singapore 1996, p. 77-154 Bet32 H.A. Bethe Bremsformel für Elektronen relativistischer Geschwindigkeit Z. Phys. 76, 293-299 (1932) Bet34 H.A. Bethe and W. Heitler On the stopping of fast particles and on the creation of positive electrons Proc. Roy. Soc. A146, 83-112 (1934) Selected Works of Hans A. Bethe, World Scientific Singapore-New Jersey-London-Hong Kong 1996, p. 187-218 Bet53 H.A. Bethe Moliere's theory of multiple scattering Phys. Rev. 89, 1256-1266 (1953) Big75 F. Biggs, L.B. Mendelsohn and J.B. Mann Hartree-Fock Compton profiles for the elements At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 16, 201-309 (1975) Bla71 M. Blann Hybrid Model for Pre-Equilibrium Decay in Nuclear Reactions Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 337-340 (1971) Bla72 M. Blann Importance of the Nuclear Density Distribution on Pre-equilibrium Decay Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 757-759 (1972) Bla75 M. Blann Preequilibrium decay Ann. Rev. Nucl. Sci. 25, 123-165 (1975) Bla83a M. Blann and H.K. Vonach Global test of modified precompound decay models Phys. Rev. C28, 1475-1492 (1983) Bla83b M. Blann Precompound analyses of spectra and yields following nuclear capture of stopped pi- Phys. Rev. C28, 1648-1662 (1983) Blo33 F. Bloch Zur Bremsung rasch bewegter Teilchen beim Durchgang durch die Materie Ann. Physik 16, 287 (1933) Blo33a F. Bloch Bremsverm\"ogen von Atomen mit mehreren Elektronen Z. Phys. 81, 363-376 (1933) Bir64 J.B. Birks The theory and practice of scintillation counting Pergamon Press, Oxford 1964 Boe14 T.T. Boehlen, F. Cerutti, M.P.W. Chin, A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, P.G. Ortega, A. Mairani, P.R. Sala, G. Smirnov and V. Vlachoudis The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications Nuclear Data Sheets 120, 211-214 (2014) Cab04 R.A. Caballero-Lopez and H. Moraal Limitations of the force field equation to describe cosmic ray modulation J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 109, A01101 (2004) Cap80 A. Capella, U. Sukhatme, J. Tran Thanh Van Soft multihadron production from partonic structure and fragmentation functions Z. Phys. C3, 329-337 (1980) Cap80a A. Capella, J. Tran Thanh Van A new parton model description of soft hadron-nucleus collisions Phys. Lett. 93B, 146-150 (1980) Cap94 A. Capella, U. Sukhatme, C.-I. Tan and J. Tran Thanh Van Dual parton model Phys. Rep. 236, 225-330 (1994) Car75 L.L. Carter and E.D. Cashwell Particle-transport simulation with the Monte Carlo method ERDA Crit. Rev. Ser., National Technical Information Service, Springfield 1975 Cav96 M. Cavinato, E. Fabrici, E. Gadioli, E. Gadioli Erba, E. Galbiati Monte Carlo calculations using the Boltzmann Master Equation theory of nuclear reactions Phys. Lett. B382, 1-5 (1996) Cav97 D. Cavalli, A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala Simulation of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions ICARUS-TM-97/18 (1997) Cav01 M. Cavinato, E. Fabrici, E. Gadioli, E. Gadioli Erba, G. Riva Monte Carlo calculations of heavy ion cross-sections based on the Boltzmann Master equation theory Nucl. Phys. A679, 753-764 (2001) Cer06 F. Cerutti, G. Battistoni, G. Capezzali, P. Colleoni, A. Ferrari, E. Gadioli, A. Mairani, A. Pepe, Low energy nucleus-nucleus reactions: the BME approach and its interface with FLUKA Proc. 11th International Conference on Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, Varenna (Italy) June 12-16, 2006 Cha91 M.B. Chadwick, P. Oblozinsky, P.E. Hodgson and G. Reffo Pauli-blocking in the quasideuteron model of photoabsorption Phys. Rev. C44, 814-823 (1991) CLIMAX http://ulysses.sr.unh.edu/NeutronMonitor/Misc/neutron2.html Clo88 P. Cloth, D. Filges, R.D. Neef, G. Sterzenbach, Ch. Reul, T.W. Armstrong, B.L. Colborn, B. Anders and H. Brueckmann HERMES, a Monte Carlo program system for beam-materials interaction studies Report KFA/Jül-2203 (1988) Col00 G. Collazuol, A. Ferrari, A. Guglielmi, P.R. Sala, Hadronic models and experimental data for the neutrino beam production Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A449, 609-623 (2000) Cuc91 E. Cuccoli, A. Ferrari, G.C. Panini A group library from JEF 1.1 for flux calculations in the LHC machine detectors JEF-DOC-340 (91) (1991) Dan75 H. Daniel Formation of Mesonic Atoms in Condensed Matter Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1649--1651 (1975) Dre61 L. Dresner EVAP - A Fortran program for calculating the evaporation of various particles from excited compound nuclei Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-TM-196 (1961) Emm75 M.B. Emmett The MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport system Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-4972 (1975) Revision: ORNL-4972/R1 (1983) Revision: ORNL-4972/R2 (1984) Emp02 A. Empl, A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, J. Ranft and P.R. Sala, Progress and Applications of FLUKA Invited talk at the 12th RPSD Topical Meeting, April 14-18, 2002, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, electronic proceedings, American Nuclear Society ANS Order No. 700293, ISBN 8-89448-667-5 Eng67 W.W. Engle, Jr. A User's Manual for ANISN, A One-Dimensional Discrete Ordinate Transport Code with Anisotropic Scattering Oak Ridge Report K-1693 (1967) EPDL97 D.E. Cullen, J.H. Hubbell and L. Kissel EPDL97: the Evaluated Photon Data Library, '97 Version UCRL--50400, Vol. 6, Rev. 5 (1997) Fas78 A. Fasso`, G.R. Stevenson Air activity in the NAHIF complex CERN Internal Report HS-RP/IR/78-45 (1978) Fas87 A. Fasso` The CERN version of MORSE and its application to strong-attenuation shielding problems Proc. Topical Conference on Theory and Practices in Radiation Protection and Shielding, Knoxville (Tennessee) 22-24 April 1987, p. 462-471 Fas93 A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, J. Ranft, P.R. Sala, G.R. Stevenson, J.M. Zazula FLUKA92 Proc. Workshop on Simulating Accelerator Radiation Environments, Santa Fe (New Mexico) 11-15 January 1993, Los Alamos report LA-12835-C (1994), p. 134-144 Fas93a A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, J. Ranft, P.R. Sala FLUKA: present status and future developments Proc. IV Int. Conf. on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, La Biodola (Italy) 21-26 September 1993, Ed. A. Menzione and A. Scribano, World Scientific, p. 493-502 Fas93b A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, J. Ranft, P.R. Sala, G.R. Stevenson, J.M. Zazula A comparison of FLUKA simulations with measurements of fluence and dose in calorimeter structures Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A332, 459-468 (1993) Fas94 A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala Designing electron accelerator shielding with FLUKA Proc. of the 8th Int. Conf. on Radiation Shielding, Arlington (Texas) 24-28 April (1994), p. 643-649 Fas95 A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, J. Ranft and P.R. Sala FLUKA: performances and applications in the intermediate energy range Proc. of an AEN/NEA Specialists' Meeting on Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities, Arlington (Texas) 28-29 April 1994. OECD Documents, Paris 1995, p. 287-304 Fas97 A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, J. Ranft, P.R. Sala An update about FLUKA Proc. 2nd Workshop on Simulating Accelerator Radiation Environments, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland), 9-11 October 1995, Ed. G.R. Stevenson, CERN Report TIS-RP/97-05, p. 158-170 Fas97a A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, J. Ranft, P.R. Sala New developments in FLUKA modelling hadronic and EM interactions Proc. 3rd Workshop on Simulating Accelerator Radiation Environments, KEK, Tsukuba (Japan) 7-9 May 1997. Ed. H. Hirayama, KEK Proceedings 97-5 (1997), p. 32-43 Fas98 A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala, Total Giant Resonance photonuclear cross sections for light nuclei: A database for the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code Proc. 3rd Specialists' Meeting on Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities (SATIF 3), 12-13 May 1997, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan) OECD-NEA 1998, p. 61 Fas01 A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala, Electron-photon transport in FLUKA: status Invited talk in the Proceedings of the Monte Carlo 2000 Conference, Lisbon, October 23-26 2000, A. Kling, F. Barao, M. Nakagawa, L. T'avora, P. Vaz eds., Springer-Verlag Berlin, p. 159-164 (2001) Fas01a A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, J. Ranft, P.R. Sala, FLUKA: Status and Prospective for Hadronic Applications Invited talk in the Proceedings of the Monte Carlo 2000 Conference, Lisbon, October 23-26 2000, A. Kling, F. Barao, M. Nakagawa, L. T'avora, P. Vaz eds., Springer-Verlag Berlin, p. 955-960 (2001) Fas01b A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala and G. Tsiledakis Implementation of Xenon capture gammas in FLUKA for TRD background calculations CERN Report ALICE-INT-2001-28 (2001) Fas03 A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, S. Roesler, P.R. Sala, G. Battistoni, F. Cerutti, E. Gadioli, M.V. Garzelli, F. Ballarini, A. Ottolenghi, A. Empl and J. Ranft The physics models of FLUKA: status and recent developments Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics 2003 Conference (CHEP2003), La Jolla, CA, USA, March 24--28, 2003, (paper MOMT005), eConf C0303241 (2003), arXiv:hep-ph/0306267 Fas10 A. Fasso, A. Ferrari, G. Smirnov, F. Sommerer, V. Vlachoudis, FLUKA Realistic Modeling of Radiation Induced Damage Proceedings of a Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications and Monte Carlo 2010 (SNA + MC2010), Tokyo, Japan, October 17-21, 2010 Fen81 I.J. Feng, R.H. Pratt and H.K. Tseng Positron bremsstrahlung Phys. Rev. A24, 1358-1363 (1981) Fer91a A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala, R. Guaraldi, F. Padoani An improved multiple scattering model for charged particle transport Presented at the Int. Conf. on Radiation Physics, Dubrovnik, 1991 Nucl. Instr. Meth. in Phys. Res. B71, 412-426 (1992) Fer91b A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala, A. Fassò, G.R. Stevenson Can we predict radiation levels in calorimeters? Proc. 2nd Int. Conference on Calorimetry in High-Energy Physics, 14-18 October 1991, Capri (Italy) World Scientific, Singapore 1992, p. 101-116 CERN EAGLE Internal Note CAL-NO-005 (1991) Fer94 A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala A new model for hadronic interactions at intermediate energies for the FLUKA code Proc. MC93 Int. Conf. on Monte Carlo Simulation in High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Tallahassee (Florida), 22-26 February 1993. Ed. by P. Dragovitsch, S.L. Linn, M. Burbank, World Scientific, Singapore 1994, p. 277-288 Fer95 A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala Physics of showers induced by accelerator beams Proc. 1995 "Frédéric Joliot" Summer School in Reactor Physics, 22-30 August 1995, Cadarache (France). Ed. CEA, Vol 1, lecture 5b (1996) Fer96 A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala, J. Ranft, and S. Roesler The production of residual nuclei in peripheral high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions Z. Phys. C71, 75-86 (1996) Fer96a A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala, J. Ranft, and S. Roesler Cascade particles, nuclear evaporation, and residual nuclei in high energy hadron-nucleus interactions" Z. Phys. C70, 413-426 (1996) Fer96b A. Ferrari, and P.R. Sala The Physics of High Energy Reactions Proc. of the Workshop on Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear Reactors Physics, Design and Safety, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Miramare-Trieste (Italy) 15 April-17 May 1996, Ed. A. Gandini and G. Reffo, World Scientific, p. 424 (1998). Fer97 A. Ferrari, and P.R. Sala Intermediate and high energy models in FLUKA: improvements, benchmarks and applications Proc. Int. Conf. on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, NDST-97, Trieste (Italy), 19-24 May 1997. Ed. G. Reffo, A. Ventura and C. Grandi (Bologna: Italian Phys. Soc.) Vol. 59, Part I, p. 247 (1997) Fer97a A. Ferrari, T. Rancati, and P.R. Sala FLUKA applications in high energy problems: from LHC to ICARUS and atmospheric showers Proc. 3rd Workshop on Simulating Accelerator Radiation Environments (SARE 3), 7-9 May 1997 KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). Ed. H. Hirayama KEK Proceedings 97-5 (1997), p. 165-175 Fer98 A. Ferrari, and P.R. Sala Treating high energy showers In: Training course on the use of MCNP in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, ENEA, Roma (1998), p. 233-264 Fla09 V. Vlachoudis FLAIR: A Powerful But User Friendly Graphical Interface For FLUKA Proc. Int. Conf. on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009), Saratoga Springs, New York, 2009 Gab89 T.A. Gabriel, J.E. Brau and B.L. Bishop The Physics of Compensating Calorimetry and the New CALOR89 Code System Oak Ridge Report ORNL/TM-11060 (1989) Gai01 T.K. Gaisser, M. Honda, P. Lipari and T. Stanev Primary spectrum to 1 TeV and beyond Proc. 27th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2001), Hamburg, Germany, 7-15 Aug. 2001, p. 1643-1646 (2001) Gei65 J.A. Geibel, J. Ranft Part VI: Monte Carlo calculation of the nucleon meson cascade in shielding materials Nucl. Instr. Meth. 32, 65-69 (1965) Gle68 L.J. Gleeson and W.I. Axford Solar Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays Astrophys. J., 154, 1011, 1968 Goe71 K. Goebel, Ed. Radiation problems encountered in the design of multi-GeV research facilities: E. Freytag, J. Ranft, "Hadronic and electromagnetic cascades" K. Goebel, L. Hoffmann, J. Ranft, G.R. Stevenson, "Estimate of the hadronic cascade initiated by high-energy particles" K. Goebel, J. Ranft, G.R. Stevenson, "Induced radioactivity" J.H.B. Madsen, M.H. Van de Voorde, J. Ranft, G.B. Stapleton, "Radiation-induced damage to machine components and radiation heating" J. Ranft, "The interaction of protons in machine components and beam loss distributions" CERN Yellow Report 71-21 (1971) Goe73 K. Goebel, J. Ranft, J.T. Routti, G.R. Stevenson Estimation of remanent dose rates from induced radioactivity in the SPS ring and target areas CERN LABII-RA/73-5 (1973) Gub67 W. Guber, J. Nagel, R. Goldstein, P.S. Mettelman, and M.H. 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Ranft Hadronic event generation for hadron cascade calculations and detector simulation II. Inelastic hadron-nucleus collisions at energies below 5 GeV Nucl. Sci. Eng. 88, 551-566 (1984) Han84b K. Haenssgen, S. Ritter The Monte Carlo code DECAY to simulate the decay of baryon and meson resonances University of Leipzig report KMU-HEP-79-14 (1979) Comp. Phys. Comm. 31, 411-418 (1984) Han86 K. Haenssgen, J. Ranft The Monte Carlo code HADRIN to simulate inelastic hadron-nucleon interactions at laboratory energies below 5 GeV Comp. Phys. Comm. 39, 37-51 (1986) Han86a K. Haenssgen, J. Ranft The Monte Carlo code NUCRIN to simulate inelastic hadron-nucleus interactions at laboratory energies below 5 GeV Comp. Phys. Comm. 39, 53-70 (1986) Han87 K. Haenssgen Hadronic event generation for hadron cascade calculations and detector simulation IV. The application of the intranuclear cascade model to reactions of pions, nucleons, kaons, and their antiparticles with nuclei below 6 GeV/c Nucl. Sci. 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