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1.1.5} Energy loss


  * Bethe-Bloch theory [Bet30, Bet32, Bet34, Blo33, Blo33a]. Barkas Z^3 effect
    [Bar56, Bar63] and Bloch Z^4 effect [Blo33]. Mott correction to the
    Rutherford scattering cross section [Mot29, Ins09]. Improved ionisation
    potential, handling of porous substances, ranging out particles below
    energy cutoff [Fas97].
  * Optional delta-ray production and transport with account for spin effects
    and ionisation fluctuations.  The present version includes a special
    treatment [Fas97a] which combines delta-ray production with properly
    restricted ionisation fluctuations and includes corrections for particle
    spin and electrons/positrons and "distant collision" straggling
    corrections (similar to Blunck-Leisegang ones).  Original approach making
    use of very general statistical properties of the problem. Within this
    framework "practical" solutions have been implemented into the code with
    very satisfactory results. This approach exploits the properties of the
    cumulants of distributions, and in particular of the cumulants of the
    distribution of Poisson distributed variables.
  * Shell and other low-energy corrections derived from Ziegler [Zie77].
  * Ionisation potentials and density effect parameters according to
    Sternheimer, Berger and Seltzer [Ste84].
  * Non-ionising energy losses (NIEL) [Sum95, Ins09]
  * Displacements Per Atom (DPAs) [Fas10]
  * Special transport algorithm, based on Molière's theory of multiple
    Coulomb scattering improved by Bethe [Mol48, Mol55, Bet53], with account
    of several correlations:
    - between lateral and longitudinal displacement and the deflection angle
    - between projected angles
    - between projected step length and total deflection
  * Accurate treatment of boundaries and curved trajectories in magnetic and
    electric fields
  * Automatic control of the step
  * Path length correction
  * Spin-relativistic effects at the level of the second Born approximation
    [Fer91a]
  * Nuclear size effects (scattering suppression) on option (simple nuclear
    charge form factors are implemented, more sophisticated ones can be
    supplied by the user)
  * Fano correction for heavy charged particle multiple scattering.
  * Single scattering: algorithm based on the Rutherford formula with a
    screening factor in the form used by Molière (for consistency with the
    multiple scattering model used by FLUKA), integrated analytically without
    any approximation. Nuclear form factors and spin-relativistic corrections
    at the first or second Born approximation level accounted for by a
    rejection technique.
  * Correction for cross section variation with energy over the step.
  * Bremsstrahlung and electron pair production at high energy by heavy
    charged particles, treated as a continuous energy loss and deposition or
    as discrete processes depending on user choice
  * Muon photonuclear interactions, with or without transport of the produced
    secondaries.

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