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1.1.8} Photons


  * Pair production with actual angular distribution of electrons and
    positrons.
  * Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal pair production suppression effect [Lan53,
    Lan53a, Mig56, Mig57]
  * Compton effect with Doppler broadening using a fit of the Compton profiles
    [Rib75, Big75], and account for atomic bonds through use of inelastic
    Hartree-Fock form factors.
  * Photoelectric effect with actual photoelectron angular distribution
    according to the fully relativistic theory of Sauter [Sau31]. Interactions
    sampled separately for each component element and for each edge. The edge
    fine structure is taken into account. Parameterisations/tabulations for
    photoelectric cross sections including all known edges up to Z=100 and
    down to a few eV. Optional emission of fluorescence photons and
    approximate treatment of Auger electrons for all K and most L lines.
  * Rayleigh effect.
  * Photon polarisation taken into account for Compton, Rayleigh and
    Photoelectric effects.
  * Photohadron production:
    - Vector Meson Dominance Model (Ranft [Ran87b]), modified and improved
      (Ferrari-Sala) using PEANUT below 770 MeV [Fas95].
    - Quasideuteron interactions
    - Giant Dipole Resonance

  
Note:
the present lowest transport limit for photons is 100 eV. However, fluorescence emission may be underestimated at energies lower than the K-edge in high-Z materials, because of lack of Coster-Kronig effect. The mimimum recommended energy for PRIMARY photons is about 1 keV.

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