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FLUKA: 18.1} First generation (the CERN SPS Project, 1962-1978) Previous Index Next

18.1} First generation (the CERN SPS Project, 1962-1978)


 The first codes of Ranft [Ran64,Gei65,Ran66,Ran67,Ran70a,Ran72]
 were originally non-analogue and were used as a tool for designing shielding
 of high energy proton accelerators. The first analogue cascade code was written
 and published at Rutherford High Energy Lab, where Ranft worked from 1967 to
 1969. His work was supported by Leo Hobbis of RHEL, who at the time was the
 radiation study group leader for the CERN 300 GeV project. The analogue code was
 called FLUKA (FLUktuierende KAskade), and was used to evaluate the
 performances of NaI crystals used as hadron calorimeters [Ran70a].

 Around 1970, J. Ranft got a position at Leipzig University.  During
 the SPS construction phase in the Seventies he was frequently invited
 by the CERN-Lab-II radiation group, leader Klaus Goebel, to
 collaborate in the evaluation of radiation problems at the SPS on the
 basis of his hadron cascade codes. These codes were FLUKA and versions
 with different geometries and slightly differing names [Sch74]. Jorma Routti,
 of Helsinki University of Technology, collaborated with Ranft in
 setting up several of such versions [Ran72a,Ran74]. The particles
 considered were protons, neutrons and charged pions.

 At that time, FLUKA was used mainly for radiation studies connected
 with the 300 GeV Project [Goe71,Goe73,Fas78]. During that time, the development
 of FLUKA was entirely managed by Ranft, although many suggestions for various
 improvements came from Klaus Goebel, partly from Jorma Routti and later from
 Graham Stevenson (CERN). In that version of FLUKA, inelastic hadronic
 interactions were described by means of an inclusive event generator
 [Ran74,Ran80a]. In addition to nucleons and charged pions, the generator could
 now sample also neutral pions, kaons and antiprotons.

 Ionisation energy losses and multiple Coulomb scattering were
 implemented only in a crude way, and a transport cutoff was set at 50 MeV
 for all particles.  The only quantities scored were star density and
 energy deposited. The electromagnetic cascade
 and the transport of low-energy particles were not simulated in detail
 but the corresponding energy deposition was sampled from "typical"
 space distributions.

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