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18.19} Heavy ions


 Heavy ion transport, energy loss, effective charge and associated
 fluctuations, multiple scattering, was developed by Ferrari as early as
 1998 largely based on already existing tools in FLUKA.

 There was an increasing demand for extending the FLUKA interaction models
 to heavy ions, both for basic and applied physics applications (cosmic rays,
 hadrotherapy, radiation problems in space). A long standing collaboration has
 been going on since 1997 with Prof. L. Pinsky, chair of the Physics Department
 at the University of Houston. This collaboration became formal in 2000 with
 a NASA Grant covering three years of FLUKA developments in the field of heavy
 ion transport and interactions, as well as the development of user friendly
 tools based on ROOT for a better management of the code (project FLEUR).
 Further support came from ASI, as a grant to a collaborating group in Milan
 for hiring a person for one year devoted to these issues.

 The DPMJET code has been interfaced to cover the high (> 5 GeV/n) energy range,
 and an extensively modified version of the RQMD-2.4 code is used at lower

 At very low energy, below ~0.1 GeV/n, a treatment based  on the Boltzmann
 Master Equation (BME) has been implemented [Cav96,Cav01,Cer06].

 In 2004, a model for electromagnetic dissociation of ions in ion-ion
 interactions has been implemented [Bal04].

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