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5.1} Particles codes

 Each particle which can be transported by FLUKA is identified by an
 alphanumeric name and by an integer number. Negative values of such numerical
 identifiers are reserved to light and heavy ions, and to optical photons. The
 value 0 indicates a pseudoparticle RAY, which can be used to scan the
 geometry. Numbers > 200 designate "families" of particles, grouped according
 to some common characteristics (all hadrons, or all charged particles, etc.).
 In FLUKA, they are called Generalised Particles and can be used only for
 scoring. Various forms of scored energy, transferred momentum, induced
 activity etc. are also treated as Generalised Particles.

 The identifier values are reported in the following Table, together with the
 corresponding particle numbering scheme of the Particle Data Group [PDG].

 Fluka name     Fluka number    Common name      Standard PDG number
                                                 (Particle Data Group)

 4-HELIUM (1)       -6          Alpha                   ---
 3-HELIUM (1)       -5          Helium-3
 TRITON   (1)       -4          Triton                  ---
 DEUTERON (1)       -3          Deuteron                ---
 HEAVYION (1)       -2          Generic heavy ion with Z > 2
                                  (see command HI-PROPE)
 OPTIPHOT           -1          Optical Photon          ---
 RAY (2)             0          Pseudoparticle          ---
 PROTON              1          Proton                  2212
 APROTON             2          Antiproton             -2212
 ELECTRON            3          Electron                  11
 POSITRON            4          Positron                 -11
 NEUTRIE             5          Electron Neutrino         12
 ANEUTRIE            6          Electron Antineutrino    -12
 PHOTON              7          Photon                    22
 NEUTRON             8          Neutron                 2112
 ANEUTRON            9          Antineutron            -2112
 MUON+              10          Positive Muon            -13
 MUON-              11          Negative Muon             13
 KAONLONG           12          Kaon-zero long           130
 PION+              13          Positive Pion            211
 PION-              14          Negative Pion           -211
 KAON+              15          Positive Kaon            321
 KAON-              16          Negative Kaon           -321
 LAMBDA             17          Lambda                  3122
 ALAMBDA            18          Antilambda             -3122
 KAONSHRT           19          Kaon zero short          310
 SIGMA-             20          Negative Sigma          3112
 SIGMA+             21          Positive Sigma          3222
 SIGMAZER           22          Sigma-zero              3212
 PIZERO             23          Pion-zero                111
 KAONZERO           24          Kaon-zero                311
 AKAONZER           25          Antikaon-zero           -311
 Reserved           26               ---                 ---
 NEUTRIM            27          Muon neutrino             14
 ANEUTRIM           28          Muon antineutrino        -14
 Blank              29               ---                 ---
 Reserved           30               ---                 ---
 ASIGMA-            31          Antisigma-minus        -3222
 ASIGMAZE           32          Antisigma-zero         -3212
 ASIGMA+            33          Antisigma-plus         -3112
 XSIZERO            34          Xi-zero                 3322
 AXSIZERO           35          Antixi-zero            -3322
 XSI-               36          Negative Xi             3312
 AXSI+              37          Positive Xi            -3312
 OMEGA-             38          Omega-minus             3334
 AOMEGA+            39          Antiomega              -3334
 Reserved           40               ---                 ---
 TAU+               41          Positive Tau             -15
 TAU-               42          Negative Tau              15
 NEUTRIT            43          Tau neutrino              16
 ANEUTRIT           44          Tau antineutrino         -16
 D+                 45          D-plus                   411
 D-                 46          D-minus                 -411
 D0                 47          D-zero                   421
 D0BAR              48          AntiD-zero              -421
 DS+                49          D_s-plus                 431
 DS-                50          D_s-minus               -431
 LAMBDAC+           51          Lambda_c-plus           4122
 XSIC+              52          Xi_c-plus               4232
 XSIC0              53          Xi_c-zero               4132
 XSIPC+             54          Xi'_c-plus              4322
 XSIPC0             55          Xi'_c-zero              4312
 OMEGAC0            56          Omega_c-zero            4332
 ALAMBDC-           57          Antilambda_c-minus     -4122
 AXSIC-             58          AntiXi_c-minus         -4232
 AXSIC0             59          AntiXi_c-zero          -4132
 AXSIPC-            60          AntiXi'_c-minus        -4322
 AXSIPC0            61          AntiXi'_c-zero         -4312
 AOMEGAC0           62          AntiOmega_c-zero       -4332
 Reserved           63               ---                 ---
 Reserved           64               ---                 ---

 (1) Heavy fragments produced in evaporation are loaded in a special stack
     (COMMON FHEAVY, contained in the INCLUDE file with the same name).
     The internal code for heavy evaporation fragments is the following:
     3 = deuteron, 4 = 3-H, 5 = 3-He, 6 = 4-He, 7-12 = fission fragments.
     Transport capabilities (dE/dx, with account of effective charge and
     effective charge straggling, multiple Coulomb scattering, no interaction
     yet) are now available for d, t, 3-He and 4-He.  Heavier ions can be
     transported on demand (see option IONTRANS), with or without nuclear
     interactions. Fission fragments and fragments from Fermi break-up, when
     produced, are also put in COMMON FHEAVY with id's ranging from 7 to 12
     (usually 7 and 8 for two fragments).

 (2) A "RAY" is not a real particle, but a straight line trajectory through the
     FLUKA geometry. When a primary particle (defined by options BEAM and
     BEAMPOS, or by a SOURCE subroutine) is found to be a RAY, the program
     tracks through the geometry in the given direction calculating a number of
     quantities (distance traversed in each material, number of radiation
     lengths, number of interaction lengths etc.). See 14} for instructions
     about its use.

 Generalised particles (to be used only for scoring):

  ---               40          Low-energy neutrons (used only in some input
 ALL-PART          201          All transportable particles
 ALL-CHAR          202          All charged particles
 ALL-NEUT          203          All neutral particles
 ALL-NEGA          204          All negative particles
 ALL-POSI          205          All positive particles
 NUCLEONS          206          Protons and neutrons
 NUC&PI+-          207          Protons, neutrons and charged pions
 ENERGY            208          For dose scoring: Deposited energy
                                For energy fluence scoring: Kinetic energy
 PIONS+-           209          Charged pions
 BEAMPART          210          Primary (source or beam) particles
 EM-ENRGY          211          Electromagnetic energy (of electrons, positrons
                                or photons)
 MUONS             212          Muons
 E+&E-             213          Electrons and positrons
 AP&AN             214          Antiprotons and antineutrons
 KAONS             215          All kaons
 STRANGE           216          All kaons and all hyperons and anti-hyperons
                                (i.e., all strange particles)
 KAONS+-           217          Charged kaons
 HAD-CHAR          218          Charged hadrons
 FISSIONS          219          Fissions
 HE-FISS           220          High energy fissions
 LE-FISS           221          Low energy fissions
 NEU-BALA          222          Neutron balance (algebraic sum of outgoing
                                neutrons minus incoming neutrons for all
 HAD-NEUT          223          Neutral hadrons
 KAONS0            224          Neutral kaons
 C-MESONS          225          Charmed mesons
 C-(A)BAR          226          Charmed (anti)baryons
 CHARMED           227          Charmed hadrons
 DOSE              228          Dose (energy deposited per unit mass, GeV/g)
 UNB-ENER          229          Unbiased deposited energy (GeV) (3)
 UNB-EMEN          230          Unbiased electromagnetic energy (of electrons,
                                positrons or photons) (GeV) (3)
 X-MOMENT          231          X component of momentum transfer (GeV/c)
 Y-MOMENT          232          Y component of momentum transfer (GeV/c)
 Z-MOMENT          233          Z component of momentum transfer (GeV/c)
 ACTIVITY          234          Activity per unit volume (Bq/cm3) (4)
 ACTOMASS          235          Activity per unit mass (Bq/g)  (4)
 SI1MEVNE          236          Silicon 1 MeV-neutron equivalent fluence (cm-2)
 HADGT20M          237          Fluence of hadrons with energy > 20 MeV (cm-2)
                                Unstable hadrons (but neutrons) of lower
                                energies are also counted
 NIEL-DEP          238          Non Ionising Energy Loss deposition (GeV) (5)
 DPA-SCO           239          Displacements per atoms
 DOSE-EQ           240          Dose Equivalent (pSv) (6)
 DOSE-EM           241          Dose Electromagnetic only (GeV/g)
 NET-CHRG          242          Net charge (in units of elementary electron charge)
 DOSEQLET          243          Dose equivalent with Q(LET) (GeV/g) (7)
 RES-NIEL          244          Restricted above damage threshold NIEL
                                deposition (GeV) (5)
 LOWENNEU          246          Low  energy (E<20 MeV) neutrons
 NTLOWENE          247          High energy (E>20 MeV) neutrons
 ALL-IONS          248          All nuclei with mass number equal or larger than 2
 HEHAD-EQ          249          High energy hadron equivalent fluence (cm-2) (8)
 THNEU-EQ          250          Thermal neutron equivalent fluence (cm-2) (9)
 RES-NUCL          251
 DOSE-H2O          252          Dose to water
 ALPHA-D           253
 SQBETA-D          254
 LGH-IONS          255          All ions equal or lighter than alphas included
 HVY-IONS          256          All ions heavier than alphas
 E+E-GAMM          257          e+/- and photons
 ANNIHRST          258          Positron annihilations at rest

 (3) "Unbiased energy" means that the energy deposited (or the energy fluence)
     is scored with weight 1, independent of the actual weight of the particle.
     Of course, the result will have no physical meaning, but in some
     circumstances it will provide useful information about the run itself (for
     instance in order to optimise biasing).

 (4) "Activity per unit volume" and "Activity per unit mass"
     are meaningful only when used within a 2D or 3D USRBIN estimator
     associated (by means of the DCYSCORE option) with a decay time defined
     with the DCYTIMES option. The resulting output units are Bq/cm**3 and
     Bq/g respectively, unless a binning by region or a special binning is
     requested, in which case the output is Bq or Bq cm**3/g.

 (5) "Non Ionizing Energy Loss deposition" describes the energy loss
     due to atomic displacement (recoil nucleus) as a particle traverses a
     material. The "Restricted NIEL deposition" gives the same energy loss but
     restricted to recoils having an energy above the damage threshold defined
     for each material with the use of MAT-PROP with 
=DPA-ENER. (6) "Dose equivalent" is computed using various sets of conversion coefficients (see AUXSCORE for details) converting particle fluences into Ambient Dose equivalent or Effective Dose. Dose Equivalent of particles for which conversion coefficients are not available, typically heavy ions, can be calculated by scoring generalised particle DOSEQLET. (7) "Dose equivalent" is computed using the Q(LET) relation as defined in ICRP60 [ICRP60], where LET is LET_oo in water. (8) "High energy hadron equivalent fluence" is proportional to the number of Single Event Upsets (SEU's) due to hadrons with energy > 20 MeV. Unstable hadrons (but neutrons) of lower energies are also counted. Neutrons of lower energies are weighted according to the ratio of their SEU cross section to the one of > 20 MeV hadrons (substantially reflecting the (n,alpha) cross section behaviour in different microchip materials) [Roe11,Roe12]. (9) "Thermal neutron equivalent fluence" is proportional to the number of SEU's due to thermal neutrons. Neutrons of higher energies are weighted according to the ratio of their capture cross section to the one of thermal neutrons (following the 1/v law) [Roe11,Roe12].

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