-------------------- Each particle which can be transported by FLUKA is identified by an alphanumeric name and by an integer number. Negative values of such numerical identifiers are reserved to light and heavy ions, and to optical photons. The value 0 indicates a pseudoparticle RAY, which can be used to scan the geometry. Numbers > 200 designate "families" of particles, grouped according to some common characteristics (all hadrons, or all charged particles, etc.). In FLUKA, they are called Generalised Particles and can be used only for scoring. Various forms of scored energy, transferred momentum, induced activity etc. are also treated as Generalised Particles. The identifier values are reported in the following Table, together with the corresponding particle numbering scheme of the Particle Data Group [PDG]. Fluka name Fluka number Common name Standard PDG number (Particle Data Group) 4-HELIUM (1) -6 Alpha --- 3-HELIUM (1) -5 Helium-3 TRITON (1) -4 Triton --- DEUTERON (1) -3 Deuteron --- HEAVYION (1) -2 Generic heavy ion with Z > 2 (see command HI-PROPE) OPTIPHOT -1 Optical Photon --- RAY (2) 0 Pseudoparticle --- PROTON 1 Proton 2212 APROTON 2 Antiproton -2212 ELECTRON 3 Electron 11 POSITRON 4 Positron -11 NEUTRIE 5 Electron Neutrino 12 ANEUTRIE 6 Electron Antineutrino -12 PHOTON 7 Photon 22 NEUTRON 8 Neutron 2112 ANEUTRON 9 Antineutron -2112 MUON+ 10 Positive Muon -13 MUON- 11 Negative Muon 13 KAONLONG 12 Kaon-zero long 130 PION+ 13 Positive Pion 211 PION- 14 Negative Pion -211 KAON+ 15 Positive Kaon 321 KAON- 16 Negative Kaon -321 LAMBDA 17 Lambda 3122 ALAMBDA 18 Antilambda -3122 KAONSHRT 19 Kaon zero short 310 SIGMA- 20 Negative Sigma 3112 SIGMA+ 21 Positive Sigma 3222 SIGMAZER 22 Sigma-zero 3212 PIZERO 23 Pion-zero 111 KAONZERO 24 Kaon-zero 311 AKAONZER 25 Antikaon-zero -311 Reserved 26 --- --- NEUTRIM 27 Muon neutrino 14 ANEUTRIM 28 Muon antineutrino -14 Blank 29 --- --- Reserved 30 --- --- ASIGMA- 31 Antisigma-minus -3222 ASIGMAZE 32 Antisigma-zero -3212 ASIGMA+ 33 Antisigma-plus -3112 XSIZERO 34 Xi-zero 3322 AXSIZERO 35 Antixi-zero -3322 XSI- 36 Negative Xi 3312 AXSI+ 37 Positive Xi -3312 OMEGA- 38 Omega-minus 3334 AOMEGA+ 39 Antiomega -3334 Reserved 40 --- --- TAU+ 41 Positive Tau -15 TAU- 42 Negative Tau 15 NEUTRIT 43 Tau neutrino 16 ANEUTRIT 44 Tau antineutrino -16 D+ 45 D-plus 411 D- 46 D-minus -411 D0 47 D-zero 421 D0BAR 48 AntiD-zero -421 DS+ 49 D_s-plus 431 DS- 50 D_s-minus -431 LAMBDAC+ 51 Lambda_c-plus 4122 XSIC+ 52 Xi_c-plus 4232 XSIC0 53 Xi_c-zero 4132 XSIPC+ 54 Xi'_c-plus 4322 XSIPC0 55 Xi'_c-zero 4312 OMEGAC0 56 Omega_c-zero 4332 ALAMBDC- 57 Antilambda_c-minus -4122 AXSIC- 58 AntiXi_c-minus -4232 AXSIC0 59 AntiXi_c-zero -4132 AXSIPC- 60 AntiXi'_c-minus -4322 AXSIPC0 61 AntiXi'_c-zero -4312 AOMEGAC0 62 AntiOmega_c-zero -4332 Reserved 63 --- --- Reserved 64 --- --- (1) Heavy fragments produced in evaporation are loaded in a special stack (COMMON FHEAVY, contained in the INCLUDE file with the same name). The internal code for heavy evaporation fragments is the following: 3 = deuteron, 4 = 3-H, 5 = 3-He, 6 = 4-He, 7-12 = fission fragments. Transport capabilities (dE/dx, with account of effective charge and effective charge straggling, multiple Coulomb scattering, no interaction yet) are now available for d, t, 3-He and 4-He. Heavier ions can be transported on demand (see option IONTRANS), with or without nuclear interactions. Fission fragments and fragments from Fermi break-up, when produced, are also put in COMMON FHEAVY with id's ranging from 7 to 12 (usually 7 and 8 for two fragments). (2) A "RAY" is not a real particle, but a straight line trajectory through the FLUKA geometry. When a primary particle (defined by options BEAM and BEAMPOS, or by a SOURCE subroutine) is found to be a RAY, the program tracks through the geometry in the given direction calculating a number of quantities (distance traversed in each material, number of radiation lengths, number of interaction lengths etc.). See 14} for instructions about its use. Generalised particles (to be used only for scoring): --- 40 Low-energy neutrons (used only in some input options) ALL-PART 201 All transportable particles ALL-CHAR 202 All charged particles ALL-NEUT 203 All neutral particles ALL-NEGA 204 All negative particles ALL-POSI 205 All positive particles NUCLEONS 206 Protons and neutrons NUC&PI+- 207 Protons, neutrons and charged pions ENERGY 208 For dose scoring: Deposited energy For energy fluence scoring: Kinetic energy PIONS+- 209 Charged pions BEAMPART 210 Primary (source or beam) particles EM-ENRGY 211 Electromagnetic energy (of electrons, positrons or photons) MUONS 212 Muons E+&E- 213 Electrons and positrons AP&AN 214 Antiprotons and antineutrons KAONS 215 All kaons STRANGE 216 All kaons and all hyperons and anti-hyperons (i.e., all strange particles) KAONS+- 217 Charged kaons HAD-CHAR 218 Charged hadrons FISSIONS 219 Fissions HE-FISS 220 High energy fissions LE-FISS 221 Low energy fissions NEU-BALA 222 Neutron balance (algebraic sum of outgoing neutrons minus incoming neutrons for all interactions) HAD-NEUT 223 Neutral hadrons KAONS0 224 Neutral kaons C-MESONS 225 Charmed mesons C-(A)BAR 226 Charmed (anti)baryons CHARMED 227 Charmed hadrons DOSE 228 Dose (energy deposited per unit mass, GeV/g) UNB-ENER 229 Unbiased deposited energy (GeV) (3) UNB-EMEN 230 Unbiased electromagnetic energy (of electrons, positrons or photons) (GeV) (3) X-MOMENT 231 X component of momentum transfer (GeV/c) Y-MOMENT 232 Y component of momentum transfer (GeV/c) Z-MOMENT 233 Z component of momentum transfer (GeV/c) ACTIVITY 234 Activity per unit volume (Bq/cm3) (4) ACTOMASS 235 Activity per unit mass (Bq/g) (4) SI1MEVNE 236 Silicon 1 MeV-neutron equivalent fluence (cm-2) HADGT20M 237 Fluence of hadrons with energy > 20 MeV (cm-2) Unstable hadrons (but neutrons) of lower energies are also counted NIEL-DEP 238 Non Ionising Energy Loss deposition (GeV) (5) DPA-SCO 239 Displacements per atoms DOSE-EQ 240 Dose Equivalent (pSv) (6) DOSE-EM 241 Dose Electromagnetic only (GeV/g) NET-CHRG 242 Net charge (in units of elementary electron charge) DOSEQLET 243 Dose equivalent with Q(LET) (GeV/g) (7) RES-NIEL 244 Restricted above damage threshold NIEL deposition (GeV) (5) LOWENNEU 246 Low energy (E<20 MeV) neutrons NTLOWENE 247 High energy (E>20 MeV) neutrons ALL-IONS 248 All nuclei with mass number equal or larger than 2 HEHAD-EQ 249 High energy hadron equivalent fluence (cm-2) (8) THNEU-EQ 250 Thermal neutron equivalent fluence (cm-2) (9) RES-NUCL 251 DOSE-H2O 252 Dose to water ALPHA-D 253 SQBETA-D 254 LGH-IONS 255 All ions equal or lighter than alphas included HVY-IONS 256 All ions heavier than alphas E+E-GAMM 257 e+/- and photons ANNIHRST 258 Positron annihilations at rest (3) "Unbiased energy" means that the energy deposited (or the energy fluence) is scored with weight 1, independent of the actual weight of the particle. Of course, the result will have no physical meaning, but in some circumstances it will provide useful information about the run itself (for instance in order to optimise biasing). (4) "Activity per unit volume" and "Activity per unit mass" are meaningful only when used within a 2D or 3D USRBIN estimator associated (by means of the DCYSCORE option) with a decay time defined with the DCYTIMES option. The resulting output units are Bq/cm**3 and Bq/g respectively, unless a binning by region or a special binning is requested, in which case the output is Bq or Bq cm**3/g. (5) "Non Ionizing Energy Loss deposition" describes the energy loss due to atomic displacement (recoil nucleus) as a particle traverses a material. The "Restricted NIEL deposition" gives the same energy loss but restricted to recoils having an energy above the damage threshold defined for each material with the use of MAT-PROP withSDUM=DPA-ENER. (6) "Dose equivalent" is computed using various sets of conversion coefficients (see AUXSCORE for details) converting particle fluences into Ambient Dose equivalent or Effective Dose. Dose Equivalent of particles for which conversion coefficients are not available, typically heavy ions, can be calculated by scoring generalised particle DOSEQLET. (7) "Dose equivalent" is computed using the Q(LET) relation as defined in ICRP60 [ICRP60], where LET is LET_oo in water. (8) "High energy hadron equivalent fluence" is proportional to the number of Single Event Upsets (SEU's) due to hadrons with energy > 20 MeV. Unstable hadrons (but neutrons) of lower energies are also counted. Neutrons of lower energies are weighted according to the ratio of their SEU cross section to the one of > 20 MeV hadrons (substantially reflecting the (n,alpha) cross section behaviour in different microchip materials) [Roe11,Roe12]. (9) "Thermal neutron equivalent fluence" is proportional to the number of SEU's due to thermal neutrons. Neutrons of higher energies are weighted according to the ratio of their capture cross section to the one of thermal neutrons (following the 1/v law) [Roe11,Roe12].