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  *                    http://www.fluka.org                            *
  *                                                                    *
  *     Copyright (C) 2019-2021                                        *
  *           INFN (Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics),   *
  *                Alberto Fasso`, Alfredo Ferrari, and their          *
  *                               collaborators                        *
  *                          All rights reserved                       *
  *   ( Copyright (C) 1989-2019:                                       *
  *           INFN (Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics)    *
  *           CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) )      *
  *                                                                    *
  *         Main authors:  A.Fasso`, A.Ferrari, J.Ranft, P.R.Sala      *
  *           Contributors      : G.Arico`, G.Battistoni, T.Empl,      *
  *                               Anna Ferrari, A.Fontana, M.Lantz,    *
  *                               A.Mairani, M.C.Morone, S.Muraro,     *
  *                               V.Patera, F.Salvat-Pujol, G.Smirnov  *
  *           Past contributors : T.T.Boehlen, F.Cerutti, M.Chin,      *
  *                               M.V.Garzelli, P.Schoofs, S.Roesler,  *
  *                               F.Sommerer, V.Vlachoudis             *
  *                                                                    *
  *                                                                    *
  *         2021 version of the FLUKA code by :                        *
  *                                                                    *
  *             Alberto Fasso`  - SLAC/USA                             *
  *             fasso@slac.stanford.edu                                *
  *                                                                    *
  *             Alfredo Ferrari - GWNU, Universitätsklinikum           *
  *                               Heidelberg, INFN Milan               *
  *             Alfredo.Ferrari@mi.infn.it                             *
  *                                                                    *
  *             Paola Sala      - INFN Milan                           *
  *             Paola.Sala@mi.infn.it                                  *
  *                                                                    *
  *             Johannes Ranft  - Siegen University                    *
  *             (deceased)                                             *
  *                                                                    *
  *====================================================================*


 15 May 2021

 The documentation for Fluka2020/21 is followed by:

  F. Broggi        Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Celoria 16,
                   20133 Milano, Italy

 Present (active) FLUKA authors (since FLUKA89):

  A. Fasso`,       retired, SLAC Stanford (USA)
  A. Ferrari,      private, Universitätsklinikum, Heidelberg, Germany,
                   Gangneu-Wonju National University,
                   Gangneung and Wonju, Korea,
                   Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Celoria 16,
                   20133 Milano, Italy
  J. Ranft,        Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen, Fachbereich Physik,
                   D-57068 Siegen, Germany (deceased)
  P. R. Sala,      Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Celoria 16,
                   20133 Milano, Italy

 Present contributors:

  G. Arico`        Italy
  G. Battistoni    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Celoria 16,
                   20133 Milano, Italy
  A. Empl          Houston University, Texas, USA
  A. Ferrari       HDZR, Dresden, Germany
  A. Fontana       Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Bassi 6,
                   27100 Pavia, Italy
  M.C.Morone       Universita' Tor Vergata, Roma, and INFN, Italy
  M. Lantz         Uppsala University, Box 516 751 20 Uppsala,
                   Sweden
  A. Mairani       CNAO, Str. Campeggi, 53, 27100 Pavia, and
                   Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapie (HIT), Heidelberg,
                   Germany
  S. Muraro        Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Celoria 16,
                   20133 Milano, Italy
  V. Patera        Universita' La Sapienza, Roma, and INFN Frascati,
                   Italy
  F. Salvat-Pujol  The European Organization for Nuclear Research,
                   1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
  G. Smirnov       Dubna, Russian Federation

 Other contributors who contributed to previous versions of the modern
 FLUKA:

  T.T. Boehlen     PSI, Villigen, Switzerland
  F. Cerutti       The European Organization for Nuclear Research,
                   1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
  M. Chin          Malaysia
  M. V. Garzelli   Universita' degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department
                   via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy
  S. Roesler       The European Organization for Nuclear Research,
                   1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
  P. Schoofs       The European Organization for Nuclear Research,
                   1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
  F. Sommerer      Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapie (HIT), Heidelberg,
                   Germany
  V. Vlachoudis    The European Organization for Nuclear Research,
                   1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland



 Other contributors to previous FLUKA versions (from FLUKA82 up to FLUKA92):

  P. Aarnio        Helsinki University of Technology, Dept. of Technical
                   Physics Otakaari 1, SF-02150 ESPOO, Finland
                   (up to FLUKA87)
  J.-H. Moehring   Leipzig University, Germany, Fachbereich Physik,
                   LEIPZIG, Germany
                   (up to FLUKA92)
  G. R. Stevenson  TIS/RP, CERN, CH-1211 GENEVE 23, Switzerland
                   (up to FLUKA90)
  J. M. Zazula     Institute of Nuclear Physics, CRACOW, Poland
                   (up to FLUKA90)


 Depending on whether the Licensee requested and got approval for
 a User or Trial FLUKA version, the FLUKA User license or the FLUKA
 Trial Version license applies respectively (see below). For
 commercial users, ad hoc licenses are agreed, hence none of the
 licenses below applies.

                   FLUKA User license

         COPYRIGHT NOTICE AND LICENSE CONDITIONS

 The copyright in the FLUKA software Version 2011.2x and FLAIR
 Version 2.3 is entirely vested in INFN and CERN  jointly. The
 copyright in further versions distributed on www.fluka.org is
 vested as following:

 Copyright in developments  carried  out before  September 1st
 2019 is vested in INFN and CERN jointly.

 Copyright in developments  carried  out  after  September 1st
 2019 is vested in INFN, Alberto Fasso`, Alfredo Ferrari,  and
 their collaborators(*).   Those parts which are partially  or
 totally copyright  of  Alberto Fasso`  and/or Alfredo Ferrari
 are licensed free of charge for use in  FLUKA as  distributed
 by the FLUKA Authors and INFN (**).

 Authorship is detailed for every routine in the source  code.

 All rights  not  expressly  granted  under  this license  are
 reserved.  Requests for permissions not  granted  under  this
 license shall be addressed to fsc@fluka.org.   Any permission
 may only be granted in writing.    The FLUKA software results
 in particular from work performed by Alberto Fasso`,  Alfredo
 Ferrari, Johannes  Ranft,  Paola Sala  (the "FLUKA Authors"),
 and collaborators (the "Collaborators").   The Flair user in-
 terface results in particular from work performed by  Vasilis
 Vlachoudis  (the "Flair Author") and collaborators  (also the
 "Collaborators").

 INFN  is the exclusive source of distribution  of  the  code,
 bug fixes and documentation  of the  FLUKA  software  version
 2020.0 and  beyond, (http://www.fluka.org), and may authorise
 distribution by mirror sites.

 This license cancels and replaces  any  prior license  condi-
 tions but their warranty and liability provisions shall  con-
 tinue to  apply to any use  or  modifications made under such
 prior license conditions.

* Creation date and last modification date of each routine
are indicated in the source code
** A non-exhaustive list of routines and modules which are
partially or totally copyright of Alberto Fasso` and/or Alfredo Ferrari is included in the LICENSED.routines file. DEFINITIONS The FLUKA software ("FLUKA") means the fully integrated particle physics Monte Carlo simulation software package being developed since 1989, available from the official FLUKA website (http://www.fluka.org) and authorised mirror sites. FLUKA includes FLUKA core code, FLUKA User Routines (as defi- ned below), and the Flair user interface. FLUKA User Routines means the set of subroutines collected in the usermvax section of FLUKA and forming part of the standard distribution of FLUKA. The Licensee means any person acting individually within a non-profit organisation, exercising any permission granted by this license. LICENSE GRANT 1. Subject to the terms and conditions of this license, the FLUKA Copyright Holders herewith grant to the Licensee a worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty-free, source and object code license to use and reproduce FLUKA for internal scientific non commercial non-military purposes only. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Licensee shall not execute FLUKA in a manner that produces an output whose contents are directly useable or easily employable to simulate the physics models embedded within FLUKA in a generic manner, or excise portions of FLUKA source or object code, and execute them independently of FLUKA. Extracting specific isolated results from any of the individual internal physics models embedded within FLUKA is not permitted. Permitted use and reproduction are referred to below as "Use". 2. Modification (including translation) of FLUKA, in whole or in part, is not permitted, except for modification of FLUKA User Routines that do not circumvent, replace, add to or modify any of the functions of the FLUKA core code. Permitted modifications are referred to below as "Modifications". 3. FLUKA is licensed for Use by the Licensee only, and the Licensee shall not market, distribute, transfer, license or sub-license, or in any way make available ("Make Available") FLUKA or Modifications, in whole or in part, to third parties, without prior written permission. The Licensee shall not assign or transfer this license. 4. Notwithstanding section 3, the Licensee may Make Available his Modifications of FLUKA User Routines to third parties under these license conditions. 5. The Licensee shall not insert FLUKA code or Modifications, in whole or in part, into other codes without prior written permission. 6. The Licensee shall not reverse engineer, decompile, decrypt, disassemble or otherwise attempt to derive the source code from the FLUKA binary code or FLUKA data libraries (except as and only to the extent that any foregoing restriction is prohibited by Law), 7. Any use of FLUKA outside the scope of this license is subject to prior written permission. 8. The Licensee shall report as soon as practical any errors or bugs found in any portion of FLUKA to fluka-discuss@fluka.org PUBLICATIONS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 9. The Licensee shall explicitly acknowledge his use of FLUKA in any publication or communication, scientific or otherwise, relating to such use, by citing the FLUKA set of references (http://www.fluka.org, see below) and the FLUKA copyright notice. 10. The Licensee shall ensure that the FLUKA set of references, the FLUKA copyright notice and these license conditions are not altered or removed from FLUKA and that all embodiments of FLUKA and Modifications contain in full the FLUKA set of references, the FLUKA copyright notice, and these license conditions. 11. Any insertion of FLUKA code or Modifications, in whole or in part, into other codes with permission under section 5 shall preserve the FLUKA set of references, the FLUKA copyright notice and these license conditions in the FLUKA code or Modifications concerned, and must also reproduce these within any additional global notices included along or embedded within the software into which the FLUKA code or the Modifications have been integrated, in whole or in part. Any part of the FLUKA code or Modifications so inserted shall continue to be subject to these license conditions. 12. Publication of any results of comparisons of specific internal physics models extracted from FLUKA with permission under section 6 with data or with other codes or models is subject to prior written permission. 13. Contributions to any formal code comparisons and validation exercises pertaining to FLUKA, sponsored by recognised bodies or within the framework of recognised conferences and workshops, are subject to prior written permission. WARRANTY AND LIABILITY 14. DISCLAIMER FLUKA IS PROVIDED BY THE FLUKA COPYRIGHT HOLDERS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, OF SATISFACTORY QUALITY, AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE ARE DISCLAIMED. THE FLUKA COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND THE AUTHORS MAKE NO REPRESENTATION THAT FLUKA AND MODIFICATIONS THEREOF WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT, TRADE SECRET OR OTHER PROPRIETARY RIGHT. 15. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY THE FLUKA COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND ANY CONTRIBUTOR SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, EXEMPLARY, PUNITIVE OR OTHER DAMAGES OF ANY CHARACTER INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES, LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF CONTRACT, WARRANTY, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), PRODUCT LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF FLUKA, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, AND THE LICENSEE SHALL HOLD THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND ANY CONTRIBUTOR FREE AND HARMLESS FROM ANY LIABILITY, INCLUDING CLAIMS BY THIRD PARTIES, IN RELATION TO SUCH USE. TERMINATION 16. This license shall terminate with immediate effect and without notice if the Licensee fails to comply with any of the terms of this license, or if the Licensee initiates litigation against any of the FLUKA Copyright Holders or any contributors with regard to FLUKA. It shall also terminate with immediate effect from the date on which a new version of FLUKA becomes available. In either case sections 14 and 15 above shall continue to apply to any Use or Modifications made under these license conditions. FLUKA set of references, subject to change "The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications" T.T. Bohlen, F. Cerutti, M.P.W. Chin, A. Fasso`, A. Ferrari, P.G. Ortega, A. Mairani, P.R. Sala, G. Smirnov, and V. Vlachoudis, Nuclear Data Sheets 120, 211-214 (2014) "FLUKA: a multi-particle transport code" A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala, A. Fasso`, and J. Ranft, CERN-2005-10 (2005), INFN/TC_05/11, SLAC-R-773 Use of Flair must be acknowledged using the following refer- ence: V. Vlachoudis, Proc. Int. Conf. on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009), Saratoga Springs, New York, 2009 Additional FLUKA references can be added, provided they are relevant for the FLUKA version under consideration.
Note:
Copyright statements contained in individual files re- ferring explicitly to one or more of the Authors and/or Collaborators, must be interpreted as Copyright INFN and CERN, Authors: ..., for the period 1989 - September 1st 2019, and as Copyright INFN, Alberto Fasso` and co- llaborators, Authors: ..., from September 1st 2019 on- wards. FLUKA set of references, subject to change "Overview of the FLUKA code" G. Battistoni, T. Boehlen, F. Cerutti, P.W. Chin, L.S. Esposito, A. Fassò, A. Ferrari, A. Lechner, A. Empl, A. Mairani, A. Mereghetti, P. Garcia Ortega, J. Ranft, S. Roesler, P.R. Sala, V. Vlachoudis, G. Smirnov, Annals of Nuclear Energy 82, 10-18 (2015) "FLUKA: a multi-particle transport code" A. Ferrari, P.R. Sala, A. Fasso`, and J. Ranft, CERN-2005-10 (2005), INFN/TC_05/11, SLAC-R-773 Use of Flair must be acknowledged using the following reference: V. Vlachoudis, Proc. Int. Conf. on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009), Saratoga Springs, New York, 2009 Additional FLUKA references can be added, provided they are relevant for the FLUKA version under consideration. This set of references is subject to change in time. New ones will be communicated, when necessary, in the Release Notes of new FLUKA versions.
Note:
The Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank is an authorized distributor of the code For questions/clarifications/problems about the license or in general the use of FLUKA please contact the INFN FLUKA responsible person: Dr, Paola R. Sala INFN - Via Celoria 16 I-20133 Milano (Italy) Paola.Sala@mi.infn.it or one of the Authors. FLUKA2021 MANUAL IMPORTANT WARNING FOR THE USERS This manual is a reference tool for preparing input for the FLUKA particle transport code. It is not complete and it is not guaranteed to be free from errors. It is continually evolving just as the code does. It should not be cited: the proper references to be cited in any recent work related to FLUKA are listed above (see also the list of References in 19}). In using the code, the user agrees on the authorship and copyright and hence is bound to quote the above references. Please note also that early versions of the FLUKA hadronic event generator as implemented in other codes (in particular GEANT) should be referenced as such (e.g. GEANT-FLUKA) and not as FLUKA. They have little in common with the present version and should be considered virtually obsolete. The proper reference to GEANT-FLUKA is Fas93a. Some parts of the manual must be "enriched": output etc.; the part on auxiliary programs must be updated. Please refer to fasso@slac.stanford.edu / Alfredo.Ferrari@mi.infn.it for any comment or criticism on this manual and/or the code. Alberto Fasso`, Alfredo Ferrari

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