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COMPOUND


    defines a compound, alloy or mixture, made of several materials, or even a
    mixture of different isotopes

    See also ASSIGNMAt, CORRFACT, LOW-MAT, MATERIAL, MAT-PROP

     If 
WHAT(1)
> 0.0 and
WHAT(2)
> 0.0 :
WHAT(1)
= atom relative content of first material in the compound
WHAT(2)
= index (or name) of first material If
WHAT(1)
< 0.0 and
WHAT(2)
> 0.0 : |
WHAT(1)
| = mass fraction of first material in the compound
WHAT(2)
= index (or name) of first material If
WHAT(1)
< 0.0 and
WHAT(2)
< 0.0 : |
WHAT(1)
| = volume fraction of first material in the compound |
WHAT(2)
| = index (or name) of first material No default In a similar way,
WHAT(3)
and
WHAT(4)
refer to the second material in the compound,
WHAT(5)
and
WHAT(6)
to the third one.
SDUM
= name of the compound
Default
(option COMPOUND not requested): no compound is defined For more than three materials in the same compound, add as many COMPOUND cards with the same
SDUM
name as needed (but the maximum number of components per compound is 80, and the maximum total number of components is 2400).
Notes:
1) Option COMPOUND must always be used in conjunction with a MATERIAL card having the same
SDUM
name (see MATERIAL). MATERIAL cards used for this purpose provide the density of the compound, its material number and name (
WHAT(1)
and
WHAT(2)
of the MATERIAL option, namely atomic number and weight, are ignored). 2) The order of MATERIAL and COMPOUND cards is irrelevant. 3) The atom (or molecule) content, mass fraction or volume fraction need only to be given on a relative basis (normalisation is done automatically by the program). 4) Partial pressures of an (ideal) gas are equivalent to molecule fractions and also to volume fractions. 5) If a compound is defined by volume fractions of the components (either elements or compounds themselves - see Note 8 below for recursive definitions), FLUKA internally calculates the atomic densities of each component using the densities indicated in the respective MATERIAL cards: in this case, therefore, (and only in this case), it is important that these correspond to the actual densities. 6) Isotopic compositions other than natural can be defined by the COMPOUND option too. 7) When using the LOW-NEUT option (explicitly or by default set by the DEFAULTS option), a special data set containing low-energy neutron cross sections for each material used must be available. The data sets are combined in a single file, delivered with the FLUKA program (logical input unit LUNXSC, = 9). Each low-energy neutron data set is identified either by name (if equal to a FLUKA name and unique or first with that name), or/and by one or more identifiers given with a card LOW-MAT when necessary to remove ambiguity. In the case of a composite material defined by a COMPOUND option, two possibilities are allowed (see LOW-MAT): a - to associate the FLUKA material with a pre-mixed neutron data set. In this case interactions take place with individual nuclei at high energy, while average cross sections are used for low-energy neutrons. Note that no pre-mixed neutron data set is yet available (at the moment the standard sets contain pure elements only). b - to associate the FLUKA material with several elemental neutron data sets (one per component element). In this case both high-energy and low-energy neutron interactions take place with individual nuclei. This is the only possibility at present but it may change in the future. 8) Recursion is allowed, i.e. the components of a composite material can be composite materials. The depth of recursion is only limited by the size of the internal arrays (in case of overflow a message is issued and the job is terminated). Different levels of recursion can use different units in the definition of the component fractions (atoms, mass or volume fractions). Note, however, that if a compound is put together from different composite molecules, the atomic and molecular fractions have to be given without normalisation (use the chemical formulae directly). What follows is an example (for a number-based input) of a simple compound BOOZE containing 50 weight percent of water and 50 of ethanol.
*...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+...
MATERIAL 1.0 0.0 .0000899 3.0 0.0 0.0 HYDROGEN MATERIAL 6.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 CARBON MATERIAL 8.0 0.0 0.00143 5.0 0.0 0.0 OXYGEN MATERIAL 0.0 0.0 1.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 WATER MATERIAL 0.0 0.0 0.7907 7.0 0.0 0.0 ETHANOL MATERIAL 0.0 0.0 0.9155 8.0 0.0 0.0 BOOZE COMPOUND 2.0 3.0 1.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 WATER COMPOUND 2.0 4.0 6.0 3.0 1.0 5.0 ETHANOL COMPOUND -50.0 20.0 -50.0 7.0 0.0 0.0 BOOZE
* Note that in the above example materials 4, 5, 7 and 8 have been defined
* overriding the default FLUKA material numbers.This is only allowed in
* an explicitly number-based input, declared as such with
WHAT(4)
= 4.0 in
* command GLOBAL,
The same example, in a name-based input, could be: MATERIAL 1.0 0.0 .0000899 0.0 0.0 0.0 HYDROGEN MATERIAL 6.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARBON MATERIAL 8.0 0.0 0.00143 0.0 0.0 0.0 OXYGEN MATERIAL 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 WATER MATERIAL 0.0 0.0 0.7907 0.0 0.0 0.0 ETHANOL MATERIAL 0.0 0.0 0.9155 0.0 0.0 0.0 BOOZE COMPOUND 2.0 HYDROGEN 1.0 OXYGEN 0.0 0.0 WATER COMPOUND 2.0 CARBON 6.0 HYDROGEN 1.0 5.0 ETHANOL COMPOUND -50.0 WATER -50.0 ETHANOL 0.0 0.0 BOOZE Example of how COMPOUND is commonly used to define a mixture (concrete). In a number-based input:
*...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+...
* definition of material 27 (concrete) as compound: H (1%), C(0.1%),
* O(52.9107%), Na(1.6%), Mg(0.2%), Al(3.3872%), Si(33.7021%), K(1.3%),
* Ca(4.4%), Fe(1.4%)
MATERIAL 19.0 0.0 0.862 0.0 0.0 0.0 POTASSIU MATERIAL 0.0 0.0 2.35 0.0 0.0 0. CONCRETE COMPOUND -0.01 3.0 -0.001 6.0 -0.529107 8. CONCRETE COMPOUND -0.016 19.0 -0.002 9.0 -0.033872 10. CONCRETE COMPOUND -0.337021 14.0 -0.013 26.0 -0.044 21. CONCRETE COMPOUND -0.014 11.0
* In the above example, elements 3 (hydrogen), 6 (carbon), 8 (oxygen),
* 9 (magnesium), 10 (aluminium), 11 (iron), 14 (silicon), 19 (sodium) and
* 21 (calcium) are not defined because the corresponding pre-defined FLUKA
* materials are used (see 5}). Potassium is not pre-defined, therefore it is
* assigned a new numbers 26 (that keeps the numbering sequence continuous,
* since the last FLUKA pre-defined material has number 25). The name is
* chosen to correspond with the potassium neutron cross section data set.
* (Chap. 10})
The same example, in a name-based input: MATERIAL 19.0 0.0 0.862 0.0 0.0 0.0 POTASSIU MATERIAL 0.0 0.0 2.35 0.0 0.0 0. CONCRETE COMPOUND -0.01 HYDROGEN -0.001 CARBON -0.529107 OXYGEN CONCRETE COMPOUND -0.016 SODIUM -0.002 MAGNESIU -0.033872 ALUMINUM CONCRETE COMPOUND -0.337021 SILICON -0.013 POTASSIU -0.044 CALCIUM CONCRETE COMPOUND -0.014 IRON

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