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16 Special source: cosmic rays

Cosmic ray calculations can be done with FLUKA using the input commands GCR-SPE (for initialisation purposes) and SPECSOUR. In addition, several auxiliary stand-alone programs need to be used to prepare the geometry and material cards to be inserted into the input file.

Command SPECSOUR does not define only cosmic ray sources, but also a number of other pre-defined complex sources that cannot be described by the simple keywords BEAM, BEAMPOSit, BEAMAXES and HI-PROPErt. To avoid confusion, SPECSOUR input related to cosmic rays is described separately in this Chapter, in 16.7}.

A complete calculation to determine particle fluxes in the atmosphere requires:

  • the determination of the spectrum and composition of cosmic rays at the local interstellar medium,
  • the determination of changing conditions in the solar wind magnetic field and the resulting interaction with the inward flow of galactic cosmic rays from the local interstellar medium,
  • the determination of the trajectories of cosmic rays through the Earth's geomagnetic field,
  • the transport of the surviving incident cosmic rays through the Earth's atmosphere to various depths.

The following options are available concerning the simulation of cosmic ray interactions in FLUKA:

  • Superposition model. In this approach primary nuclei are split into equivalent independent nucleons. See card PHYSICS with SDUM = IONSPLITti.

  • DPMJET interaction model [Ran95,Roe01]. This model simulates the nucleus-nucleus collision above 5 GeV/nucleon.
    In case DPMJET is chosen for cosmic ray application, it is suggested to avoid the otherwise recommended DPMJET-III choice and to use instead the DPMJET-II.5 version (linking with the script $FLUPRO/flutil/ldpm2qmd).

The DMPJET and the superposition model can also be used together, by setting the respective energy ranges with the PHYSICS card.

A number of tools and packages have been developed for the FLUKA environment to simulate the production of secondary particles by primary cosmic rays interacting with the Earth's atmosphere. These tools, in different stand-alone versions, have already been successfully used for fundamental physics research [Bat00,Bat03a]. '

The set of FLUKA tools for cosmic ray simulation includes a set of core routines to manage event generation, geomagnetic effects and particle scoring, and the following stand-alone data files and programs :

  • file it contains the material definitions for the density profile of the US Standard Atmosphere. These cards must be inserted (or the file included with the #include directive) into the FLUKA input file. it contains an example of a 3D geometrical description of the Earth atmosphere, generated in according with the previous data cards (and corresponding density profile). This geometry includes the whole Earth

  • program atmloc_2011.f: it prepares the description of the local atmosphere geometry with the atmospheric shells initialised by option GCR-SPE. This geometry includes only a slice of the Earth geometry, centered around the geomagnetic latitude input by the user

  • <iz>phi<MV>.spc: GCR All-Particle-Spectra for the iz_th ion species (iz=1,...,28), modulated for the solar activity corresponding to a Phi parameter <Mv> MegVolt. Phi=500 MV roughly corresponds to solar minimum, while Phi=1400 MV roughly corresponds to solar maximum

  • allnucok.dat: GCR All-Nucleon Spectra

  • sep20jan2005.spc: spectra for the Solar Particle Event of Jan 20th, 2005

  • sep28oct2003.spc: spectra for the Solar Particle Event of Oct 28th, 2008

16.1 Primary spectrum

The Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) component of the cosmic ray flux can be simulated up to 30 TeV/nucleon (or 500 TeV/n when DPMJET is linked). Two options are available: with the first one the actual ion composition of the flux is used (All-Particle Spectrum), while with the second option the primary flux is treated as a sum of nucleons (All-Nucleon Spectrum).

16.1.1 The All-Particle Spectrum

The ion composition of the galactic flux is derived from a code [Bad96] which considers all elemental groups from Z = 1 to Z = 28. The spectrum is modified to follow recent data sets (AMS [Alc00,Alc00a] and BESS [San00] data of 1998) up to 100 GeV according to the so-called ICRC2001 fit [Gai01]. The spectrum components are written into 28 files. The name of the files has the form (Z+phi+<PhiMV>+.spc). The first two characters of each file name are the atomic number of a different primary spectrum ion (e.g. 01:protons, 02:alpha...). They are followed by the solar modulation parameter used for generating the spectrum (7 characters) and by an extension ".spc". The ".spc" files are spectra without geomagnetic cutoff. The ".spc" files are used together with an analytical calculation of the rigidity cutoff, according to a centered dipole approximation of the Earth geomagnetic field, adapted to result in the vertical cutoff inserted into the input file (SPECSOUR command, SDUM=GCR-IONF, WHAT(2) of the continuation card), at the geomagnetic latitude and longitude of interest.

16.1.2 The High Energy All-Nucleon Spectrum

The All-Nucleon Spectrum is obtained modifying the fit of the All-Nucleon flux proposed by the Bartol group [Agr96], using the All-Particle Spectrum (16.1.1}) up to 100 GeV and data published in ICRC 2003. Fluxes are read from a file named ällnucok.dat" giving the total energy (GeV), the fluxes (E.dN/dE) and the neutron/proton ratios. This option ("All Nucleon Flux") is chosen with command SPECSOUR and SDUM = GCR-ALLF (see details in 16.7}). The user can decide whether to sample neutrons and protons from the file and to transport them using the superposition model, or to consider all neutrons as being bound in alpha particles and to transport protons and alphas. This latter choice has the advantage of taking better into account the magnetic field, which has no effect on the neutrons.

For the proton component at energies larger than 100 GeV, using the normalization obtained at 100 GeV, a spectral index gamma = -2.71 is assumed. A spectral index gamma = -3.11 is assumed above the knee at 3000 TeV. For what concerns the He component, gamma = -2.59 is used above 100 GeV and a charge-dependent knee is assumed according to the rule: E_nucleon = Z * 3000 TeV/A. Higher Z components have been grouped in CNO, MgSi and Fe sets and treated using an All-Particle spectrum with the above mentioned charge-dependent knee parameterisation.

16.2 Solar modulation

The deviation from the power law, observed below 10 GeV, is a consequence of the influence of the solar wind called solar modulation [Gle68]. Flux intensity in this energy range is anti-correlated to the solar activity and follows the sun-spot 11-year cycle. The correlation between the solar activity and the modulation of the cosmic rays flux has been studied by monitoring the flux of atmospheric neutrons. In fact, a flux of low energy neutrons (E ~ 1.E8-1.E9 eV) is produced in the interaction of primary CRs with the atmosphere and it is mostly due to low energy primaries (1-20 GeV), due to the rapid fall of the primary flux intensity with energy. One assumes that far from the solar system there exists an unmodified flux called Local Interstellar Spectrum, which is modified within the solar system by the interaction with the solar wind. This interaction is well described by the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation. Describing the solar wind by a set of magnetic irregularities, and considering these irregularities as perfect elastic scattering centres, one obtains the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation. For energies above 100 MeV this equation can be solved using the "Force Field Approximation" [Cab04]. According to this approximation, at a given distance from the Sun, for example at 1 a.u., the population of CRs at energy E_interstellar is shifted at the energy E_0 as in an energy loss mechanism due to a potential V:

 E_0 = E_interstellar + Z . V_solarwind(t)

The solar wind potential at a given distance from the Sun depends on only one parameter, the time: V = V(t). So it doesn't matter what the interstellar flux is: given a flux on the Earth at a time t, one can find the flux at another time just from the relative variation of the solar wind potential Phi. This variation can be derived from the neutron monitor counts [Bad96]. In the case of the fit used by FLUKA, an offline code [Bad96] makes use of an algorithm which takes into account a specific Phi value, or the counting rate of the CLIMAX neutron monitor [CLIMAX] to provide the prediction for the flux at a specific date or for a given value of the potential which expresses the effect of the interplanetary modulation of the local interstellar spectrum. Even if the model is not a description of the processes and of the manner in which they occur, it reasonably predicts the GCR modulation at Earth.

16.3 Atmospheric model: geometry

16.3.1 Earth atmosphere model

The FLUKA package makes use of a density vs. height profile of atmosphere. An external program containing a functional fit to this profile has been used to generate at the same time an input geometry file, together with the data cards for material description (each atmospheric layer, having its proper density, needs to be assigned a different FLUKA material). The geometry produced, and distributed with the name is a spherical representation of the whole Earth atmosphere. The material definitions and assigment contained in the file correspond to the density profile of the U.S. Standard atmosphere. The cards contained in shall be included by the user in her/his input file. In addition, the user can specialize this geometry to a given geomagnetic latitude and longitude with the help of the atmloc_2011.f auxiliary program. In this way, the geometry will contain only a slice of the atmosphere, centered on the given position. The local geometry file produced by atmloc_2011.f} is named atmloc.geo. The user shall rename this geometry file for further use. More auxiliary files are produced by atmloc_2011.f: the file contain additional material assignments to be included in the input together with the ones from; the file atmloc.sur contains data used by FLUKA runtime, and normalization areas.

16.3.2 Local atmosphere model

The geometry is built using two truncated cones (TRC) whose vertex is in the centre of the Earth, the base is out of the atmosphere and the altitude (considering a geographical location in the northern hemisphere) is in the direction of the Earth radius which passes through the North Pole. The angular span between the two cones contains the atmosphere of interest for the latitude of interest. In addition there is a third cone placed in the opposite direction: its vertex is where the other two cones have the base, its base is out of the atmosphere and its height is in the direction of the Earth radius which passes through the South Pole. A similar geometry can be built for a requested latitude in the southern emisphere. So the complete geometry of the local model, built with the auxiliary program atmloc_2011.f, is made of:

  • a main series of layers made from the part of the atmospheric shells between the two cones (this is the part where the scoring takes place),
  • two series of side layers made from the part of the atmospheric shells between one of the two cones and the third one. These additional layers are needed to take into account the primary and secondary particles which don't come from the vertical direction but can anyway reach the region of interest.

16.4 Atmospheric model: density

The atmosphere can be roughly characterized as the region from sea level to about 1000 km altitude around the globe, where neutral gases can be detected. Below 50 km the atmosphere can be assumed to be homogeneously mixed and can be treated as a perfect gas. Above 80 km the hydrostatic equilibrium gradually breaks down as diffusion and vertical transport become important.

The following Table shows the U.S. Standard Atmosphere depth vs altitude and vs FLUKA atmospheric layer.

         km   US St.               km   US St.                km   US St.
 FLUKA  from  Atm.         FLUKA  from  Atm.          FLUKA  from  Atm.
 region s.l.  Depth        region s.l.  Depth         region s.l.  Depth
             (g/cm2)                   (g/cm2)                    (g/cm2)
  1.0   70.0  0.092        35.0   31.6    9.367       69.0  10.7   242.777
  2.0   68.5  0.108        36.0   30.8   10.540       70.0  10.2   260.107
  3.0   67.1  0.126        37.0   30.0   11.849       71.0   9.8   278.093
  4.0   65.6  0.146        38.0   29.2   13.309       72.0   9.4   296.729
  5.0   64.2  0.170        39.0   28.4   14.937       73.0   8.9   316.007
  6.0   62.8  0.198        40.0   27.7   16.748       74.0   8.5   335.921
  7.0   61.5  0.230        41.0   26.9   18.763       75.0   8.1   356.460
  8.0   60.1  0.266        42.0   26.2   21.004       76.0   7.7   377.615
  9.0   58.8  0.308        43.0   25.5   23.492       77.0   7.3   399.374
 10.0   57.5  0.356        44.0   24.8   26.255       78.0   6.9   421.727
 11.0   56.2  0.411        45.0   24.1   29.290       79.0   6.6   444.661
 12.0   55.0  0.474        46.0   23.4   32.613       80.0   6.2   468.163
 13.0   53.8  0.546        47.0   22.7   36.244       81.0   5.8   492.219
 14.0   52.5  0.628        48.0   22.1   40.205       82.0   5.5   516.815
 15.0   51.4  0.722        49.0   21.4   44.516       83.0   5.1   541.936
 16.0   50.2  0.828        50.0   20.8   49.201       84.0   4.8   567.566
 17.0   49.1  0.950        51.0   20.2   54.283       85.0   4.4   593.691
 18.0   47.9  1.088        52.0   19.6   59.785       86.0   4.1   620.295
 19.0   46.8  1.245        53.0   19.0   65.733       87.0   3.8   647.359
 20.0   45.7  1.423        54.0   18.4   72.152       88.0   3.4   674.869
 21.0   44.7  1.625        55.0   17.8   79.068       89.0   3.1   702.807
 22.0   43.6  1.854        56.0   17.2   86.506       90.0   2.8   731.155
 23.0   42.6  2.112        57.0   16.7   94.493       91.0   2.5   759.898
 24.0   41.6  2.404        58.0   16.1  103.057       92.0   2.2   789.016
 25.0   40.6  2.734        59.0   15.6  112.224       93.0   1.9   818.493
 26.0   39.6  3.106        60.0   15.0  122.023       94.0   1.6   848.311
 27.0   38.7  3.525        61.0   14.5  132.482       95.0   1.3   878.453
 28.0   37.7  3.996        62.0   14.0  143.628       96.0   1.1   908.900
 29.0   36.8  4.526        63.0   13.5  155.489       97.0   0.8   939.636
 30.0   35.9  5.121        64.0   13.0  168.094       98.0   0.5   970.643
 31.0   35.0  5.789        65.0   12.5  181.471       99.0   0.3  1001.903
 32.0   34.1  6.538        66.0   12.0  195.646      100.0   0.0  1033.400
 33.0   33.3  7.378        67.0   11.6  210.649
 34.0   32.4  8.317        68.0   11.1  226.507

16.5 Geomagnetic field

In the last 50 years measurements of the geomagnetic field configuration have been performed regularly with increasing precision, revealing a yearly weakening of the field intensity of 0.07% and a westward drift of ~0.2 degrees per year over the Earth 's surface.

This field can be described, to first order, as a magnetic dipole tilted with respect to the rotation axis by ~11.5 degrees, displaced by ~400 km with respect to the Earth's center and with a magnetic moment M = 8.1E25 G cm3. The dipole orientation is such that the magnetic South pole is located near the geographic North pole, in the Greenland, at a latitude of 75 degrees N and a longitude of 291 degrees. The magnetic North pole is instead near the geographic South pole, on the border of the Antarctica. The intensity at the Earth's surface varies from a maximum of ~0.6 G near the magnetic poles to a minimum of ~0.2 G in the region of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), between Brazil and South Africa. The complex behavior of the equipotential field lines is mainly a consequence of the offset and tilt.

In FLUKA the geomagnetic field is taken into account in two different stages of the simulation chain.

  • 1) Effect of geomagnetic cutoff which modulates the primary spectrum: at a given location (point of first interaction of primary particles) and for a given direction a threshold in magnetic rigidity exists. The closer the injection point is to the geomagnetic equator, the higher will be the vertical rigidity threshold. The standard possibility offered to the user is to evaluate the geomagnetic cutoff making use of a dipolar field centered with respect to the centre of the Earth, adapted to give the "correct" vertical rigidity cutoff for the geographic location under examination. Under this approximation, an analytical calculation of the cutoff can be performed and the FLUKA source routine for galactic cosmic rays can apply the resulting geomagnetic cutoff. In case an off-set dipole (not provided at present) or more sophisticated approaches are deemed necessary, a spherical harmonic expansion model like the IGRF model is available [CLIMAX]. However no default mean is provided for making use of these higher order approximations for computing geomagnetic cutoff's, since no analytical calculation is possible, and a numerical (back)tracking of the primary particle from(/to) infinity is required. Please note that activating these more realistic options for the earth geomagnetic field by means of the GCR-SPE card has only the effect of using the resulting field while showering in the atmosphere (see next point), a minimal correction with respect to the dominant effect of the geomagnetic cutoff.
  • 2) The local geomagnetic field can be taken into account during shower development in the atmosphere. The field is automatically provided by the default MAGFLD FLUKA user routine, in accordance to the option selected in the GCR-SPE card. For local problems, provided the coordinate system is consistently used (that is geomagnetic coordinates for the dipolar field, geographic ones for the multipolar field) there is no need to provide any orientation or intensity information about the field.

16.6 Scoring

The usual scoring options (USRBDX, USRYIELD...) can be used to define detectors to calculate the fluence of different radiation fields.

16.7 The various SDUM options available with command SPECSOUR

PECSOUR|The various SDUM options available with command SPECSOUR|102|16| -->

For SDUM = GCR-ALLF: All-nucleon flux

All-nucleon flux as explained in 16.1.2}. Three different options (average, maximum and minimum flux) are available. The program reads fluxes from a file named ällnucok.dat" in which are given the total energy (GeV), the fluxes (E.dN/dE) and the neutron/proton ratios. It is possible to give an energy interval and to choose a starting radius (radius of the emission sphere in case of spherical geometry) or starting height (the emission height in case of flat geometry). It is possible to activate the vertical geomagnetic cutoff and to give the cutoff value at the central latitude, otherwise the geomagnetic cutoff will be not taken into account. Ions are treated like separate nucleons, or as alphas and protons.

    WHAT(1) = 1: central value
            = 2: minimum value
            = 3: maximum value

    WHAT(2) >= 0: starting radius (cm)
             < 0: starting height (cm)

    WHAT(3) = Minimum energy

    WHAT(4) = Maximum energy

    WHAT(5) = Spectral index for sampling (below transition energy)

    WHAT(6) = Transition energy for sampling (above it, sample from 1/E)

    SDUM : not used

Continuation card:

    WHAT(1) = 0: no geomagnetic cutoff
            = 1: geomagnetic cutoff is requested
            = 2: the vertical geomagnetic cutoff is read as WHAT(2)

    WHAT(2) = vertical geomagnetic cutoff at central latitude for WHAT(1) = 2,
              no meaning otherwise

    WHAT(3)-WHAT(5): no meaning

    WHAT(6) =< 0: nucleons are transported separately
             > 0: transport as many alphas as can be built by neutrons, and the
                  remaining protons

    SDUM    = "&" in any position in column 71 to 78 (or in the last field if
              free format is used)

For SDUM = GCR-IONF: All-particle flux

All-particle flux (ion flux), as explained in 16.1.1}. The particle composition of the flux can be modified by choosing the minimum and maximum atomic number (1 =< Z =< 28). The spectrum components have been produced by the GCRIONF code for various modulation parameters and written on '.spc' files (Z+<PhiMV>+.spc). It is possible to give an energy interval and to choose a starting radius (radius of the emission sphere in case of spherical geometry) or starting height (the emission height in case of flat geometry). It is possible to activate the geomagnetic cutoff (WHAT(7) in SPECSOUR) and to input optionally the vertical cutoff value at the central latitude. Ions are treated like real ions or can be splitted. The optimized value for spectral index for sampling (below transition energy) is gamma = 1.75 (WHAT(5)). Above transition energy, the spectrum will be assumed to have a 1/E shape. For SDUM = SPE-SPEC, SPE-2003 or SPE-2005, the source is a Solar Particle Event.

The input parameters are the same for the three SDUM values.

    For SDUM = SPE-SPEC or SPE-2005, the spectrum is read from a
        file sep20jan2005.spc
    For SDUM = SPE-2003, the spectrum is read from a file sep28oct2003.spc

    WHAT (1) = Z_max + 100 * Z_min (Z_min = 1 if none is defined)

    WHAT (2) = Starting radius (cm)

    WHAT (3) = Minimum energy

    WHAT (4) = Maximum energy
               If maximum and minimum energy differ by less than 5% then a fixed
               energy (= Maximum energy) is sampled

    WHAT (5) = Spectral index for sampling (below transition energy)

    WHAT (6) = Transition energy for sampling (above it, sample from 1/E)

Continuation card:

    WHAT(1) = 0: no geomagnetic cutoff
            = 1: geomagnetic cutoff is requested
            = 2: the vertical geomagnetic cutoff is read from WHAT(2)

    WHAT(2) = vertical geomagnetic cutoff at central latitude for WHAT(1) = 2,
              no meaning otherwise

    WHAT(3) = number of energy point in the spectra
              Default: 50

    WHAT(4) = if > 0 vertical run

    WHAT(5) = if > 0 probabilities 1 / (2 x Z) are used for the various ions
              (1 for Z = 1)

    WHAT(6) =< 0: ions are split
             > 0: ions are treated like real ions

    SDUM    = "&" in any position in column 71 to 78 (or in the last field if
              free format is used)

16.8 Example of input data cards

An example of user data cards to run a FLUKA cosmic ray problem is shown in the following, with some comments on the relevant points. The example refers to the simulation at geographical coordinates of 36.0 degrees North Latitude and 140.0 degrees East Longitude, using the solar modulation of Dec. 23rd 1995.

 Ion flux at Tsukuba, 36N 140E. Year 1995, 23 December.
 #define dpmjet
 DEFAULTS                                                              PRECISIO
 BEAM          3.D+04                                                  PROTON
 * In the following, GCR-IONF is the option to generate the all-particles flux.
 * Maximum energy is 30000 GeV.
 #if dpmjet
 ***  Dpmjet:
 SPECSOUR   28.0     6.449D+08  0.3        30000.0  1.75      500.0    GCR-IONF
 SPECSOUR   2.0       11.4                                                &
 IONTRANS   -2.0
 ***  End Dpmjet
 ***  No Dpmjet:
 SPECSOUR   28.0      6.449D+08       0.3    3000.0      1.75    500.0 GCR-IONF
 SPECSOUR    2.0           11.4                                    1.0    &
 EVENTYPE                             6.0                              EVAP
 * The following to split the ions:
 *MAT-PROP         1.0                           8.0       8.0      1.0 USERDIRE
 *PHYSICS          1.0       0.1  1000000.                              IONSPLIT
 ***  End no Dpmjet
 LAM-BIAS  -1000000.0                          10.0      39.0          GDECAY
 DISCARD        -27.0     -28.0      -5.0      -6.0
 * Next card calls the initialization routine. The string 23dec95 refers
 * to the names of input files prepared by GCRIONF specifically considering
 * the solar modulation of Dec 23th 1995
 GCR-SPE    101000.0        0.0       0.0                              23dec95
 * In the following the geometry file (specifically prepared for the
 * required geographical coordinates) is invoked.
 GEOBEGIN                   0.1      53.0      54.0                    COMBINAT
 MATERIAL         7.0    14.007  0.001251       5.0                    NITROGEN
 MATERIAL         8.0    15.999  0.001429       6.0                    OXYGEN
 MATERIAL        18.0    39.948   0.00178       7.0                    ARGON
 * Here the 100 different material specifications for all atmospheric layers
 * follow
 MATERIAL                       8.781E-08      8.0                     AIR001
 COMPOUND  -.9256E-03      5.0 -.2837E-03      6.0 -.01572E-3      7.0 AIR001
 MATERIAL                       1.036E-07      9.0                     AIR002
 COMPOUND  -.9256E-03      5.0 -.2837E-03      6.0 -.01572E-3      7.0 AIR002
 * Idem: Mat-prop cards:
 MAT-PROP   7.168E-05                           8.0       8.0       1.0
 MAT-PROP   8.453E-05                           9.0       9.0       1.0
 MAT-PROP   9.957E-05                          10.0      10.0       1.0
 * cards to Assign a different material to each region
 ASSIGNMAT        8.0       1.0     103.0     102.0        1.
 ASSIGNMAT        9.0       2.0     104.0     102.0        1.
 ASSIGNMAT       10.0       3.0     105.0     102.0        1.
 *  Internal Vacuum: black hole in this case
 ASSIGNMAT        1.0     101.0                           0.0
 *  External Vacuum
 ASSIGNMAT        2.0     102.0                           1.0
 *  Internal vacuum black hole:
 ASSIGNMAT        1.0     203.0                           0.0
 *  Atmospheric black hole:
 ASSIGNMAT        1.0     204.0                           0.0
 *  External black hole:
 ASSIGNMAT        1.0     205.0                           0.0
 ASSIGNMAT        1.0     206.0                           0.0
 MGNFIELD         20.      100.       30.       0.0       0.0       0.0
 STEPSIZE       -100.   100000.       1.0     206.0
 PHYSICS          +1.                           1.0      39.0          DECAYS
 * The following cards deactivate/activate the electromagnetic
 * interactions. If ON, cuts on e+/- & gamma have to be defined in the
 * EMFCUT cards.
 EMF                                                                   EMF-OFF
 *EMFCUT        -0.001   +0.0005                 1.0     205.0
 *EMFCUT        -0.001   +0.0005       1.0       1.0     205.0
 SCORE          208.0     210.0     201.0     229.0
 * The following cards activate the scoring of double differential flux
 * (energy * and angle) at the boundaries of some atmospheric layers
 * Mu -
 USRYIELD      2398.0      11.0     -21.0      98.0      99.0      1.0 970.6g/cm2
 USRYIELD      20.552     0.576      48.0  11.47834       0.0      6.0     &
 USRYIELD      2398.0      11.0     -21.0      99.0     100.0      1.0 1001.g/cm2
 USRYIELD      20.552     0.576      48.0  11.47834       0.0      6.0     &
 USRYIELD      2398.0      11.0     -21.0     100.0     101.0      1.0 1033.g/cm2
 USRYIELD      20.552     0.576      48.0  11.47834       0.0      6.0     &
 * Mu +
 USRYIELD      2398.0      10.0     -22.0      98.0      99.0      1.0 970.6g/cm2
 USRYIELD      20.552     0.576      48.0  11.47834       0.0      6.0     &
 USRYIELD      2398.0      10.0     -22.0      99.0     100.0      1.0 1001.g/cm2
 USRYIELD      20.552     0.576      48.0  11.47834       0.0      6.0     &
 USRYIELD      2398.0      10.0     -22.0     100.0     101.0      1.0 1033.g/cm2
 USRYIELD      20.552     0.576      48.0  11.47834       0.0      6.0     &
 RANDOMIZ        1.0
 START       100000.

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