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[ < prev  ] [ HOME ] [  next > ] 5 Particle and material codes 5.1 Particles codes
Each particle which can be transported by FLUKA is identified by an
alphanumeric name and by an integer number. Negative values of such numerical
identifiers are reserved to light and heavy ions, and to optical photons. The
value 0 indicates a pseudoparticle RAY, which can be used to scan the geometry.
Numbers > 200 designate "families" of particles, grouped according to some
common characteristics (all hadrons, or all charged particles, etc.). In FLUKA,
they are called Generalised Particles and can be used only for scoring. Various
forms of scored energy, transferred momentum, induced activity etc. are also
treated as Generalised Particles.
Fluka name Fluka number Common name Standard PDG number (Particle Data Group) 4HELIUM (1) 6 Alpha  3HELIUM (1) 5 Helium3 TRITON (1) 4 Triton  DEUTERON (1) 3 Deuteron  HEAVYION (1) 2 Generic heavy ion (see command HIPROPE) OPTIPHOT 1 Optical Photon  RAY (2) 0 Pseudoparticle  PROTON 1 Proton 2212 APROTON 2 Antiproton 2212 ELECTRON 3 Electron 11 POSITRON 4 Positron 11 NEUTRIE 5 Electron Neutrino 12 ANEUTRIE 6 Electron Antineutrino 12 PHOTON 7 Photon 22 NEUTRON 8 Neutron 2112 ANEUTRON 9 Antineutron 2112 MUON+ 10 Positive Muon 13 MUON 11 Negative Muon 13 KAONLONG 12 Kaonzero long 130 PION+ 13 Positive Pion 211 PION 14 Negative Pion 211 KAON+ 15 Positive Kaon 321 KAON 16 Negative Kaon 321 LAMBDA 17 Lambda 3122 ALAMBDA 18 Antilambda 3122 KAONSHRT 19 Kaon zero short 310 SIGMA 20 Negative Sigma 3112 SIGMA+ 21 Positive Sigma 3222 SIGMAZER 22 Sigmazero 3212 PIZERO 23 Pionzero 111 KAONZERO 24 Kaonzero 311 AKAONZER 25 Antikaonzero 311 Reserved 26   NEUTRIM 27 Muon neutrino 14 ANEUTRIM 28 Muon antineutrino 14 Blank 29   Reserved 30   ASIGMA 31 Antisigmaminus 3222 ASIGMAZE 32 Antisigmazero 3212 ASIGMA+ 33 Antisigmaplus 3112 XSIZERO 34 Xizero 3322 AXSIZERO 35 Antixizero 3322 XSI 36 Negative Xi 3312 AXSI+ 37 Positive Xi 3312 OMEGA 38 Omegaminus 3334 AOMEGA+ 39 Antiomega 3334 Reserved 40   TAU+ 41 Positive Tau 15 TAU 42 Negative Tau 15 NEUTRIT 43 Tau neutrino 16 ANEUTRIT 44 Tau antineutrino 16 D+ 45 Dplus 411 D 46 Dminus 411 D0 47 Dzero 421 D0BAR 48 AntiDzero 421 DS+ 49 D_splus 431 DS 50 D_sminus 431 LAMBDAC+ 51 Lambda_cplus 4122 XSIC+ 52 Xi_cplus 4232 XSIC0 53 Xi_czero 4112 XSIPC+ 54 Xi'_cplus 4322 XSIPC0 55 Xi'_czero 4312 OMEGAC0 56 Omega_czero 4332 ALAMBDC 57 Antilambda_cminus 4122 AXSIC 58 AntiXi_cminus 4232 AXSIC0 59 AntiXi_czero 4132 AXSIPC 60 AntiXi'_cminus 4322 AXSIPC0 61 AntiXi'_czero 4312 AOMEGAC0 62 AntiOmega_czero 4332 Reserved 63   Reserved 64   (1) Heavy fragments produced in evaporation are loaded in a special stack (COMMON FHEAVY, contained in the INCLUDE file with the same name). The internal code for heavy evaporation fragments is the following: 3 = deuteron, 4 = 3H, 5 = 3He, 6 = 4He, 712 = fission fragments. Transport capabilities (dE/dx, with account of effective charge and effective charge straggling, multiple Coulomb scattering, no interaction yet) are now available for d, t, 3He and 4He. Heavier ions can be transported on demand (see option IONTRANS), with or without nuclear interactions. Fission fragments and fragments from Fermi breakup, when produced, are also put in COMMON FHEAVY with id's ranging from 7 to 12 (usually 7 and 8 for two fragments). (2) A "RAY" is not a real particle, but a straight line trajectory through the FLUKA geometry. When a primary particle (defined by options BEAM and BEAMPOS, or by a SOURCE subroutine) is found to be a RAY, the program tracks through the geometry in the given direction calculating a number of quantities (distance traversed in each material, number of radiation lengths, number of interaction lengths etc.). See (14) for instructions about its use. Generalised particles (to be used only for scoring):  40 Lowenergy neutrons (used only in some input options) ALLPART 201 All transportable particles ALLCHAR 202 All charged particles ALLNEUT 203 All neutral particles ALLNEGA 204 All negative particles ALLPOSI 205 All positive particles NUCLEONS 206 Protons and neutrons NUC&PI+ 207 Protons, neutrons and charged pions ENERGY 208 For dose scoring: Deposited energy For energy fluence scoring: Kinetic energy PIONS+ 209 Charged pions BEAMPART 210 Primary (source or beam) particles EMENRGY 211 Electromagnetic energy (of electrons, positrons or photons) MUONS 212 Muons E+&E 213 Electrons and positrons AP&AN 214 Antiprotons and antineutrons KAONS 215 All kaons STRANGE 216 All kaons and all hyperons and antihyperons (i.e., all strange particles) KAONS+ 217 Charged kaons HADCHAR 218 Charged hadrons FISSIONS 219 Fissions HEFISS 220 High energy fissions LEFISS 221 Low energy fissions NEUBALA 222 Neutron balance (algebraic sum of outgoing neutrons minus incoming neutrons for all interactions) HADNEUT 223 Neutral hadrons KAONS0 224 Neutral kaons CMESONS 225 Charmed mesons C(A)BAR 226 Charmed (anti)baryons CHARMED 227 Charmed hadrons DOSE 228 Dose (energy deposited per unit mass, GeV/g) UNBENER 229 Unbiased deposited energy (GeV) (3) UNBEMEN 230 Unbiased electromagnetic energy (of electrons, positrons or photons) (GeV) (3) XMOMENT 231 X component of momentum transfer (GeV/c) YMOMENT 232 Y component of momentum transfer (GeV/c) ZMOMENT 233 Z component of momentum transfer (GeV/c) ACTIVITY 234 Activity per unit volume (Bq/cm3) (4) ACTOMASS 235 Activity per unit mass (Bq/g) (4) SI1MEVNE 236 Silicon 1 MeVequivalent flux (cm2) HADGT20M 237 Hadrons with energy > 20 MeV (cm2) NIELDEP 238 Non Ionising Energy Loss deposition (GeV) (5) DPASCO 239 Displacements per atoms DOSEEQ 240 Dose Equivalent (pSv) (6) DOSEEM 241 Dose Electromagnetic only (GeV/g) NETCHRG 242 Net charge DOSEQLET 243 Dose equivalent with Q(LET) (pSv) (7) RESNIEL 244 Restricted above damage threshold NIEL (GeV) (5) (3) "Unbiased energy" means that the energy deposited (or the energy fluence) is scored with weight 1, independent of the actual weight of the particle. Of course, the result will have no physical meaning, but in some circumstances it will provide useful information about the run itself (for instance in order to optimise biasing). (4) "Activity per unit volume" and "Activity per unit mass" are meaningful only when used within a 2D or 3D USRBIN estimator associated (by means of the DCYSCORE option) with a decay time defined with the DCYTIMES option. The resulting output units are Bq/cm**3 and Bq/g respectively, unless a binning by region or a special binning is requested, in which case the output is Bq or Bq cm**3/g. (5) "Non Ionizing Energy Loss deposition" describes the energy loss due to atomic displacement (recoil nucleus) as a particle traverses a material. The "Restricted NIEL" gives the same energy loss but restricted to recoils having an energy above the damage threshold defined for each material with the use of MATPROP with SDUM=DPAENER. (6) "Dose equivalent" is computed using various sets of conversion coefficients (see AUXSCORE for details) converting particle fluences into Ambient Dose equivalent or Effective Dose. Dose Equivalent of particles for which conversion coefficients are not available, tipically heavy ions, can be calculated by scoring generalised particle DOSEQLET. (7) "Dose equivalent" is computed using the Q(LET) relation as defined in ICRP60 [ICRP60], where LET is LET_oo in water 5.2 Predefined materials
Materials can be easily defined by option MATERIAL by assigning a density, a
name, a code number (compulsory only if the input has been defined as purely
numeric), and, in the case of single elements, an atomic number and an atomic
weight. For compounds, the MATERIAL option card must be accompanied by a
COMPOUND definition referred to the same material name. If lowenergy neutrons
(E < 20 MeV) need to be transported, the chosen name of a single element
material must coincide with that of one for which cross sections are available
(see Table in (10)).
Note that the above constraints can be ignored if the input is namebased and
the material number in the MATERIAL option is left blank. In that case, the
material name must be used in all relevant command (e.g. ASSIGNMAt, COMPOUND).
List of predefined singleelement FLUKA materialsFluka name Fluka Common name A Z Density number [g/cm^3] BLCKHOLE 1 Blackhole or External Vacuum 0 0 0 VACUUM 2 Vacuum or Internal Vacuum 0 0 0 HYDROGEN 3 Hydrogen 1.00794 1. 0.0000837 HELIUM 4 Helium 4.002602 2. 0.000166 BERYLLIU 5 Beryllium 9.012182 4. 1.848 CARBON 6 Carbon 12.0107 6. 2.000 NITROGEN 7 Nitrogen 14.0067 7. 0.00117 OXYGEN 8 Oxygen 15.9994 8. 0.00133 MAGNESIU 9 Magnesium 24.3050 12. 1.740 ALUMINUM 10 Aluminium 26.981538 13. 2.699 IRON 11 Iron 55.845 26. 7.874 COPPER 12 Copper 63.546 29. 8.960 SILVER 13 Silver 107.8682 47. 10.500 SILICON 14 Silicon 28.0855 14. 2.329 GOLD 15 Gold 196.96655 79. 19.320 MERCURY 16 Mercury 200.59 80. 13.546 LEAD 17 Lead 207.2 82. 11.350 TANTALUM 18 Tantalum 180.9479 73. 16.654 SODIUM 19 Sodium 22.989770 11. 0.971 ARGON 20 Argon 39.948 18. 0.00166 CALCIUM 21 Calcium 40.078 20. 1.550 TIN 22 Tin 118.710 50. 7.310 TUNGSTEN 23 Tungsten 183.84 74. 19.300 TITANIUM 24 Titanium 47.867 22. 4.540 NICKEL 25 Nickel 58.6934 28. 8.902 List of predefined ICRU compoundsFluka name Common name Density [g/cm^3] WATER Water 1.0 POLYSTYR Polystyrene 1.06 PLASCINT Plastic scintillator 1.032 PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate, Plexiglas, Lucite, Perspex 1.19 BONECOMP Compact bone 1.85 BONECORT Cortical bone 1.85 MUSCLESK Skeletal muscle 1.04 MUSCLEST Striated muscle 1.04 ADTISSUE Adipose tissue 0.92 KAPTON Kapton polyimide film 1.42 POLYETHY Polyethylene 0.94 AIR Dry air at NTP conditions 0.00120479 
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