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FLUKA 2024.1.0, April 30th 2024
(last respin 2024.1.0)
flair-2.3-0e 06-May-2024


-- New Fluka Major Release
( 06.05.2024 )

FLUKA 2024.1.0 is available.
Flair-2.3-0epy3 adapted

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Defines the (generalised) particles producing the stars to be scored in each region. Requests scoring of energy deposition in each region.


     WHAT(1..4) : id-numbers identifying the particles or generalised
                  particles (see (5) for a list of particle numbers).
                  Depending on the (generalised) particle type, different
                  quantities are scored in each region (see Notes 3, 4a):
                  * For hadrons, photons, muons: stars
                  * For generalised particles 208.0 and 211.0: energy
                    deposition (Notes 4b, 4c)
                  * For generalised particles 219.0, 220.0 and 221.0:
                    fissions (Note 4d)
                  * For generalised particle 222.0, neutron balance (Note 4e)
                  * For generalised particles 229.0 and 230.0: unbiased
                    energy deposition (Note 4f)
                = 0.0: no scoring per region of any of the quantities
                    listed above
                Default: 201.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 (score stars produced by
                    all particles)
     WHAT(5), WHAT(6), SDUM: not used

     Default (option SCORE not given): no scoring by region

          = 0.0 : no scoring per region of stars or energy deposited
                  Default: 201.0,  0.0, 0.0, 0.0  (score stars produced
                           by all particles)

     WHAT(5), WHAT(6), SDUM : not used

     Default (option SCORE not given): no star or dose scoring by


  • 1) The possible particle numbers are those listed in (5), i.e. -6.0 to 62.0 and 201.0 to 244.0. However, not all particles can produce stars and will give meaningful results. Selecting generalised particles 208.0 (energy) or 211.0 ("electromagnetic" energy, i.e. energy of electrons, positrons and gamma), one can score dose (deposited energy).

  • 2) SCORE is one of the oldest FLUKA commands, which has been kept unchanged because of its simplicity and easiness of use. On the other hand, because it lacks the flexible memory allocation of all other scoring options, there is presently room for only 4 types of particles. Therefore, only the 4 first valid WHAT-parameters are retained.

  • 3) A star is a hadronic inelastic interaction occurring at an energy higher than a threshold defined via the option THRESHOLd (or by default higher than the transport threshold of the interacting particle). Star scoring, traditionally used in most high-energy shielding codes, can therefore be considered as a form of crude collision estimator: multiplication of star density by the asymptotic value of the inelastic nuclear interaction length gives the fluence of hadrons having energy higher than the current threshold. However, this is meaningful only if the interaction length doesn't vary appreciably with energy; therefore it is recommended to set a scoring threshold = 50 MeV (using option THRESHOLd), since interaction lengths are practically constant above this energy. Besides, star densities calculated with a 50 MeV threshold are the basis of some established radiation protection techniques such as the omega-factors for estimating material activation (see [Tho88], p.106], and the prediction of single isotope yields from the ratio of partial to inelastic cross section).

  • 4) The SCORE card defines the following scoring:
             a - scoring by region the density of stars produced by the
               selected particles (if applicable, i.e. if the particles
               are hadrons, photons or muons, or families of
               them). Stars produced by primary particles can be scored with
               id-number 210.0 (BEAMPART), all stars with 201.0 (ALL-PART).
               Results will be in stars cm-3 per primary particle if
               region volumes have been input by setting IVOPT=3 in the geometry
               title card (see (8)), otherwise in stars per region per primary.
             b - scoring by region the total energy density, if generalised
               particle 208 (ENERGY) has been selected.
               Results will be in GeV cm-3 per primary if volumes have
               been input, otherwise in GeV per region per primary.
               To obtain dose in Gy, multiply GeV/cm3 by 1.602176462E-7/rho
               (rho = density in g/cm3): but the same result can be obtained
               scoring instead the generalised particle 228 (DOSE).
             c - scoring by region the energy density deposited by
               electrons, positrons and photons, if generalised particle
               211 (EM-ENRGY) has been selected. Results as in the previous
             d - scoring by region of fissions (or fission density), if
               generalised particles 219.0 (FISSIONS), 220.0 (HE-FISS) or 221.0
               (LE-FISS) have been selected. These generalised particles
               refer to all fissions, high-energy fissions and low-energy
               neutron fissions respectively.
               Results are in fissions/cm3 per primary if volumes are input,
               otherwise in number of fissions per primary.
             e - scoring by region of the neutron balance (outgoing minus
               incoming neutrons), if generalised particle 222.0 (NEU-BALA) has
               been selected.
               Results are in net number of neutrons per cm3 per primary if
               volumes are input, otherwise in net neutrons per primary.
             f - generalised particles 229.0 (UNB-ENER) and 230.0 (UNB-EMEN)
               are similar respectively to 208.0 (ENERGY) and 211.0 (EM-ENRGY),
               with the difference that the energy deposited is scored with
               weight 1, independent of the actual weight of the particle. Of
               course, the results will have no physical meaning, but in some
               circumstances they will provide useful information about the run
               itself (for instance in order to optimise biasing).
             g - scoring as in all cases above but separately for each
               primary event, if the EVENTDAT option is used (see).

  • 5) A more flexible way to score by region stars, deposited energy etc. is "region binning" by means of option USRBIN, Note 8). However, note that in that case the results are not normalised per unit volume.

  • 6) In FLUKA. stars do not include spallations due to annihilating particles.

Example 1:

 * Score stars produced in each region by protons, high-energy neutrons and pions.
 * Score also total energy deposition in each region.
 SCORE            1.0       8.0     209.0     208.0

Example 2:

 * Score stars produced by primary particles (i.e., first interactions) in each
 * region. Score also in each region stars produced by photons (photonuclear
 * reactions) and energy deposited by electromagnetic showers.
 SCORE          210.0       7.0     211.0

Example 3:

 * Score fissions produced in each region by high- and low-energy particles.
 * Score also the net neutron production in each region, and the kaon stars.
 SCORE          220.0     221.0     222.0     215.0

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