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[ < prev  ] [ HOME ] [  next > ] 8 Combinatorial GeometryThe Combinatorial Geometry (CG) used by FLUKA is a modification of the
package developed at ORNL for the neutron and gammaray transport
program MORSE [Emm75] which was based on the original combinatorial
geometry by MAGI (Mathematical Applications Group, Inc.) [Gub67,Lic79].
Combinatorial Geometry inputCG input must respect the following sequential order: GEOBEGIN card (in FLUKA standard format, or in free format if requested by a previous FREE command) Geometry title (in special format, or in free geometry format if requested by an initial GLOBAL command) Body data (in special or free geometry format) END card (in special or free geometry format) Region data (in special or free geometry format) END card (in special or free geometry format) LATTICE cards (optional, in FLUKA standard format, or in free format if requested by a previous FREE command) Region volumes (optional, see Geometry title card) GEOEND card (in FLUKA standard format, or in free format if requested by a previous FREE command) 8.1 GEOBEGIN card
EOBEGIN cardGEOBEGIN card948 >
This card follows the general FLUKA format (see description in (6)).
It can be in free format if the latter has been requested with
option FREE. The rest of the geometry must be in a special fixed
format described below, unless free geometry format has been requested
by a GLOBAL command at the beginning of input.
WHAT(1) : not used WHAT(2) : absolute accuracy parameter (Aa) in units of 10**6 cm. It is used for tracking and boundary identification. Aa should be larger than Ar*L , where L is the largest coordinate value in the geometry description (excluding the outer blackhole shell containing it and Ar is the relative accuracy achievable in double precision (of the order of 1.E14  1.E15). Default = 0.0001 WHAT(3) > 0.0 : logical unit for geometry input. The name of the corresponding file must be input on the next card if WHAT(3) is different from 5. Note that values of WHAT(3) /= 5.0 and < 21.0 must be avoided because of possible conflicts with FLUKA predefined units. Default = 5.0 (i.e. geometry input follows) WHAT(4) > 0.0 : logical unit for geometry output. If different from 11, the name of the corresponding file must be input on the next card if WHAT(3) = 0 or 5, otherwise on the card following the next one. Values of WHAT(3) /= 11.0 and < 21.0 must be avoided because of possible conflicts with FLUKA predefined units. Default = 11.0 (i.e. geometry output is printed on the standard output) WHAT(5) : parentheses optimisation level = i0 + i1 x 1000 i0 = 1: logical optimisation only activated 2: logical + "plane" optimisation activated 3: logical + "plane" + "bounding box" optimisation activated (Default: 3) i1 > 0 forces optimisation even if no parentheses are found in the region under scrutiny (Default: 0) * WHAT(6) : not used SDUM = COMBINAT : Combinatorial geometry is used. See section on Combinatorial Geometry for input description Other geometries, available in older versions of FLUKA, are no longer supported. Default: COMBINAT SDUM = COMBNAME : Combinatorial geometry is used in free format, and names can be used instead of body and region numbers Default (option GEOBEGIN not given): not allowed! GEOBEGIN and GEOEND must always be present. 8.2 Geometry Title card
Three variables are input in the CG Title card: IVOPT, IDBG, TITLE. The format is (2I5,10X,A60). The first integer value (IVOPT = Input Volume OPTion) is a flag to indicate how to normalise the quantities scored in regions by the FLUKA option SCORE: IVOPT = 0 means that no normalisation must be performed (output values are total stars or total energy deposited in each region). IVOPT = 1 and IVOPT = 2 have no meaning in FLUKA and are not allowed. IVOPT = 3 means that the scores must be normalised dividing by region volumes input by the user just before the GEOEND card. The second integer value can be used to modify the format with which body and region data are read: IDBG = 0 or 10 : default fixed format for both bodies and regions = 10 : highaccuracy fixed format for bodies; default fixed region format = 100 : highaccuracy fixed format for bodies; region fixed format allowing more than 10000 regions = 100 : default fixed format for bodies; region fixed format allowing more than 10000 regions Note however that the maximum number of regions is dimensioned to 10000 in INCLUDE file (DIMPAR). To take advantage of the wider format it is necessary to modify the file and to recompile the program Any other value should be avoided. The value of IDBG is irrelevant if free geometry format has been requested (see the GLOBAL command). The remaining 60 characters can be used for any alphanumeric string at the user's choice. If fixed format is not used, the value of IDBG is irrelevant. 8.3 Body data
The geometry must be specified by establishing two tables. The first
table describes the type, size and location of the bodies used in the
geometry description. The second table defines the physical regions
in terms of these bodies.
FIXED FORMAT BODY INPUTIXED FORMAT BODY INPUTFIXED FORMAT BODY INPUT948 >Fixed format for both body and region input is the default, unless requested
differently by a GLOBAL command at the beginning of the input file.
In fixed format, each body is defined by: its code, a sequential number, and a
set of floating point numerical parameters defining its size, position and
orientation in space (all in cm).
Default fixed format is the original CG one as used in MORSE and in other
Monte Carlo programs. It expects up to 6 floating point values per line.
Highaccuracy fixed format allows to enter numerical data with full precision
(16 significant digits) and accommodates only a maximum of 3 floating point
values per line.
ARB BOX ELL PLA QUA RAW RCC REC RPP SPH TRC WED XCC XEC XYP XZP YCC YEC YZP ZCC ZEC (columns 35 must be left blank in continuation cards).
FREE FORMAT BODY INPUTREE FORMAT BODY INPUTFREE FORMAT BODY INPUT948 >Free format is used for both body and region input only if requested by a GLOBAL
command at the beginning of the input file or by the string COMBNAME in the
SDUM field of the GEOBEGIN command.
In free format, each body is defined by: its code, its identifier (an alphanumeric
string of up to 8 characters, with the first character alphabetical) and a set of
numerical parameters defining its size, position and orientation in space (all
in cm).
Free format has been introduced only recently and is expected to supersede soon
the other formats, which will be kept however for reasons of back compatibility.
Its main advantages, in addition to the freedom from strict alignment rules,
are the possibility to modify the input sequence without affecting the region
description (for instance, by inserting a new body) and the availability of
parentheses to perform complex boolean operations in the description of regions.
ARB BOX ELL PLA QUA RAW RCC REC RPP SPH TRC WED XCC XEC XYP XZP YCC YEC YZP ZCC ZEC followed by a unique "body name" (alphanumeric identifier) and a set of
geometrical quantities defining the body (their number depends on the body type
as explained below). The different items, separated by one or more blanks, or by
one of the separators "," "/" ";" "\" ":" can extend over as many lines as needed.
See option FREE for more detailed instructions on the use of separators.
Body types
Example in default fixed format (the comment lines shown are allowed input lines): *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 RPP 4 20.0 +20.0 50.0 +50.0 38.5 +38.5 * (a parallelepiped centreed on the origin) The same input, in highaccuracy fixed format, would be: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 RPP 4 20.0 +20.0 50.0 +50.0 38.5 +38.5 The same, in free format: RPP Smlbrick 20.0 +20.0 50.0 +50.0 38.5 +38.5
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 BOX 18 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0710678 7.0710678 0.0 14.142136 14.142136 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.0 * (a parallelepiped with a corner on the origin, with edges 10, 20 and * 30 cm long, rotated counterclockwise by 45 degrees in the xy plane) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 BOX 18 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.071067811865475 7.071067811865475 0.0 14.14213562373095 14.14213562373095 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.0 The same, in free format: BOX tiltslab 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.071067811865475 7.071067811865475 0.0 14.14213562373095 14.14213562373095 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.0
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 SPH 002 5.0 30.0 27.0 528.2 * (a sphere centreed at point x=5, y=30, z=27, with a radius of 528.2 cm) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 SPH 002 5.0 30.0 27.0 528.2 The same, in free format: SPH TheBall 5.0 30.0 27.0 528.2
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 RCC 07 5.0 5.0 5.0 57.735027 57.735027 57.735027 37. * (a circular cylinder 100 cm long and of 37 cm radius, with base * centred at point x=5, y=5, z=5, its axis making equal angles to * the coordinate axes). The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 RCC 07 5.0 5.0 5.0 57.73502691896258 57.73502691896258 57.73502691896258 37. The same, in free format: RCC BYGCYL 5.0 5.0 5.0 57.73502691896258 57.73502691896258 57.73502691896258 37.
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 REC 1 10.0 12.0 7.0 0.0 58.0 0.0 9. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.0 * (an elliptical cylinder 58 cm long parallel to the y axis, with minor * halfaxis 9 cm long parallel to the x coordinate axis, major * halfaxis 17 cm long parallel to the z axis, base centreed at point * x=10, y=12, z=7) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 REC 1 10.0 12.0 7.0 0.0 58.0 0.0 9. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.0 The same, in free format: REC pipesurf 10.0 12.0 7.0 0.0 58.0 0.0 9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.0
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 TRC 102 0.0 0.0 130.0 0.0 0.0 1000.0 600. 150.0 * (a truncated cone 1000 cm long parallel to the z axis, with the * larger circular base 600 cm in radius located at z = 130 and the * smaller base 150 cm in radius located at z = 870) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 TRC 102 0.0 0.0 130.0 0.0 0.0 1000.0 600. 150.0 The same, in free format: TRC NewCone 0.0 0.0 130.0 0.0 0.0 1000.0 600. 150.0
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 ELL 003 400.0 0.0 0.0 400.0 0.0 0.0 1000. * (an ellipsoid obtained by revolution around the x axis of an ellipse * centred at the origin, with major axis parallel to x 1000 cm long and * minor axis 600 cm long). The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 ELL 003 400.0 0.0 0.0 400.0 0.0 0.0 1000. The same, in free format: ELL TheCigar 400.0 0.0 0.0 400.0 0.0 0.0 1000.0
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 WED 97 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0710678 7.0710678 0.0 14.142136 14.142136 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.0 * (the bottom half of a parallelepiped with a corner on the origin, * with edges 10, 20 and 30 cm long, rotated counterclockwise by 45 * degrees in the xy plane) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 WED 97 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.071067811865475 7.071067811865475 0.0 14.14213562373095 14.14213562373095 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.0 The same, in free format: WED halfbox1 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.071067811865475 7.071067811865475 0.0 14.14213562373095 14.14213562373095 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.0
V1_x, V1_y, V1_z, V2_x, V2_y, V2_z, V3_x, V3_y, V3_z, V4_x, V4_y, V4_z, V5_x, V5_y, V5_z, V6_x, V6_y, V6_z, V7_x, V7_y, V7_z, V8_x, V8_y, V8_z The vertices not appearing in face descriptions are ignored, but
eight must always be supplied. The above vertex cards are followed
by one card describing the faces (two cards in highaccuracy fixed format).
Each face is described by a fourdigit number in floating point format,
such that each digit gives the indices of the three or four vertex
points of that face. These indices must be entered in the same order
for each face (i.e. all clockwise or all counterclockwise).
When the number of the faces is less than 6, the remaining face
description(s) must be zero, and must appear at the end of the
list. If a face has three vertices, the omitted position may be
either 0 or a repeat of one of the other vertices.
An ARB definition extends over 5 cards in default fixed format, or over
10 cards in highaccuracy body fixed format.
*...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 ARB 5 44.2 36.5 3572.0 44.2 33.5 3572.0 37.1 31.0 3572.0 37.1 39.0 3572.0 44.2 36.5 0.0 44.2 33.5 0.0 37.1 31.0 0.0 37.1 39.0 0.0 1234. 1562. 5876. 1485. 4378. 6732. * (a right prism of trapezoidal base, of height 3572 cm parallel to the * z axis) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 ARB 5 44.2 36.5 3572.0 44.2 33.5 3572.0 37.1 31.0 3572.0 37.1 39.0 3572.0 44.2 36.5 0.0 44.2 33.5 0.0 37.1 31.0 0.0 37.1 39.0 0.0 1234. 1562. 5876. 1485. 4378. 6732. The same, in free format: ARB oddbody 44.2 36.5 3572.0 44.2 33.5 3572.0 37.1 31.0 3572.0 37.1 39.0 3572.0 44.2 36.5 0.0 44.2 33.5 0.0 37.1 31.0 0.0 37.1 39.0 0.0 1234. 1562. 5876. 1485. 4378. 6732.
Delimited by a plane perpendicular to the xaxis. Code: YZP or by a plane perpendicular to the yaxis. Code: XZP or by a plane perpendicular to the zaxis. Code: XYP Each of these halfspaces is defined by a single number: V_x (resp. V_y, or V_z), the coordinate of the plane on the corresponding perpendicular axis. The halfspace "inside the body" is the locus of points for which x < V_x (resp. y < V_y, or z < V_z). An YZP, XZP, XYP definition, in fixed format, extends always over
a single card.
*...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 YZP 71 44.2 XZP 72 108.0 XYP 73 0.0 * (respectively, all points having x < 44.2, those having y < 108, * and those having z < 0). The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 YZP 71 44.2 XZP 72 108.0 XYP 73 0.0 The same example in free format: YZP horizPla 44.2 XZP vertPla1 108.0 XYP vertPla2 0.0
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 PLA 74 0.0 1.0 1.0 200.0 300.0 240.0 * (all points "below" a plane at 45 degrees in the yz projection which * passes through the point x=200, y=300, z=240  note that for such a * plane the x value of the point is completely irrelevant  ) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 PLA 74 0.0 1.0 1.0 200.0 300.0 240.0 The same example in free format: PLA tiltPla 0.0 1.0 1.0 200.0 300.0 240.0
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 XCC 013 480.0 25.0 300.0 * (an infinite cylinder of radius 300 cm, with axis defined by y=480, * z=25) ZCC 014 0.0 0.0 2.5 * (an infinite cylinder of radius 2.5 cm, with axis equal to the z axis) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 XCC 013 480.0 25.0 300.0 ZCC 014 0.0 0.0 2.5 The same, in free format: XCC Column 480.0 25.0 300.0 ZCC Tunnel 0.0 0.0 2.5
Example in default fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 ZEC 101 15.0 319.0 33.0 80.0 * (an infinite elliptical cylinder, centreed on x=15, y=319, with the * ellipse minor semiaxis parallel to x, 33 cm long, and the major * semiaxis parallel to y, 80 cm long) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 ZEC 101 15.0 319.0 33.0 80.0 The same body, described in free format: ZEC ChimneyA 15.0 319.0 33.0 80.0
A_xx, A_yy, A_zz, A_xy, A_xz, A_yz, A_x, A_y, A_z, A_0 corresponding to the equation: A_xx x^2 + A_yy y^2 + A_zz z^2 + A_xy xy + A_xz xz + A_yz yz + + A_x x + A_y y + A_z x + A_0 = 0 A QUA definition extends over two cards in default fixed format,
and over 4 cards in highaccuracy body fixed format.
*...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 QUA 27 0.0025 0.04 0.0064 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.055 0.64 0.0256 1.8881 * (an ellipsoid centred at x = 11 cm, y = 8 cm, z = 2 cm, with * a semiaxis 20 cm long parallel to x, one 5 cm long parallel to y and * one 12.5 cm long parallel to z) The same example in highaccuracy body fixed format: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 QUA 27 0.0025 0.04 0.0064 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.055 0.64 0.0256 1.8881 The same body, described in free format: QUA Elipsoid 0.0025 0.04 0.0064 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.055 0.64 0.0256 1.8881 NOTE++  Whenever it is possible, the following bodies should be preferred:   PLA, QUA, RPP, SPH, XCC, XEC, XYP, XZP, YCC, YEC, YZP, ZCC, ZEC   These should indeed make tracking faster, since for them extra   coding ensures that unnecessary boundary intersection calculations   are avoided when the length of the next step is smaller than the   distance to any boundary of the current region.  ++ 8.4 Geometry directives
Geometry directives are special commands enclosed between two lines $Start_xxx ....... $End_xxx where "xxx" stands for "expansion", "translat" or "transform". They allow to provide respectively a coordinate expansion, a coordinate translation or a coordinate rototranslation of the bodies embedded between the starting and the ending directive lines. Directives can be nested. The body definitions which are contained between the lines "$Start_xxx" and "$End_xxx" are automatically modified according to the syntax described below. 8.4.1 ExpansionThis directive provides a coordinate expansion (or reduction) of the body dimensions by a defined scaling factor, for all bodies embedded between the two lines. $Start_expansion [scaling factor] .............. .............. .............. $End_expansion Example: $Start_expansion 10. QUA Elipsoid 0.0025 0.04 0.0064 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.055 0.64 0.0256 1.8881 $End_expansion transforms an ellipsoid centred at (11, 8, 2), with semiaxes 20, 5 and 12.5 cm long parallel to the coordinate axes, to one centred at (110, 80, 20) with semiaxes 200, 50 and 125 cm long. 8.4.2 TranslationThis directive provides a coordinate translation. The bodies embedded between the two lines are translated by [dX] [dY] [dZ] on the three axes. $Start_translat [dX] [dY] [dZ] .............. .............. .............. $End_translat Example: $Start_translat 5., 7., +9. QUA Elipsoid 0.0025 0.04 0.0064 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.055 0.64 0.0256 1.8881 $End_translat transforms an ellipsoid centred at (11, 8, 2), with semiaxes 20, 5 and 12.5 cm long parallel to the coordinate axes, to an identical one centred at (6, 1, 7) 8.4.3 Rototranslation transformationThis directive provides a coordinate transformation, predefined by a ROTDEFIni card, for all bodies embedded between the two lines. $Start_transform [ROTDEFIni name] (or [ROTDEFIni number]) .............. .............. .............. $End_transform Example 1: .... * Cylindrical target is transformed with transformation "Rotdefi1" $Start_transform Rotdefi1 RCC targRepl 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 5.0 $End_transform .... * ROTDEFI transformation: shift of (0,2,30) then rotation of 21 degrees * around the x axis ROTDEFI 0.0 2.0 30.0Rotdefi1 ROTDEFI 100. 21. Rotdefi1 Example 2 (with lattice): .... * Cylindrical target RCC target 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 5.0 * Target replica is transformed with inverse transformation of the lattice $Start_transform Rotdefi1 RCC targRepl 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 5.0 $End_transform .... * Regions TARGET 5 +target REPLICA 5 +targRepl .... * Lattice LATTICE REPLICA Rotdefi1 .... * ROTDEFI transformations shift of (0,2,30) then rotation of 21 degrees * around the x axis ROTDEFI 0.0 2.0 30.0Rotdefi1 ROTDEFI 100. 21. Rotdefi1 Example 3: ROTDEFIni 3. 90. 0. 0. 0. 0. XtoZ ........................................ $Start_transform XtoZ $Start_translat 0. 30. +20. $Start_expansion 10. QUA Elipsoid 0.0025 0.04 0.0064 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.055 0.64 0.0256 1.8881 $End_expansion $End_translat $End_transform transforms an ellipsoid centred at (11, 8, 2), with semiaxes 20, 5 and 12.5 cm long parallel to the coordinate axes, to a similar one with semiaxes 200, 50 and 125 cm, centred at (11, 22, 18) and rotated by 90 degrees (axis z becomes axis x). 8.4.4 Geometry directives: usage notes$Start_expansion takes precedence over $Start_translat, which in turn
takes precedence over $Start_transform.
Directives $Start_expansion and $Start_translat are applied when reading
the geometry: therefore they imply no CPU penalty. Directive
$Start_transform, instead, is applied at runtime and requires some
additional CPU time.
8.5 Body END card
Body definitions must be terminated by a card with the string END (in column 35 if fixed format is used). 8.6 Region data
The various regions are described in terms of differences, intersections and unions of bodies. As in the case of body description, the user has the choice between free format and two kinds of fixed format. One of the latter is the traditional format used by the original Combinatorial Geometry as implemented for example in MORSE. The other fixed format is similar to it, but has been extended to allow body numbers larger than 10000. Both fixed formats are now superseded by the more convenient free region input format, recently introduced. Free format is based on body mnemonic "names" instead of sequential numerical identifiers and allows the use of parentheses to perform more complex boolean operations. However, the two fixed formats are still available for back compatibility reasons. With any input format, a line having an asterisk (*) in column 1 is treated as a comment card. FIXED FORMAT REGION INPUTIXED FORMAT REGION INPUTFIXED FORMAT REGION INPUT948 >Each region is described as a combination of one or more bodies, by means of the three operator symbols: , +, OR referring respectively to the boolean operations of subtraction (or
complement), intersection and union.
After the last region description, end with a card having the code END in columns 35.
Obviously, in the description of each region the symbol + must appear at least once. Examples: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 BA1 4 +7 +3 * (the above zone is the part of space common to body 7 and 3) MU2 7 +3 4 7 +20 * (the above zone is the part of space common to body 3 and 20, * excluding however that which is inside body 4 and that which is * inside 7) AIR 5 +19 * (the latter zone coincides entirely with body 19)
Examples: *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8 SA7 11OR +4 +6 7 8OR +6 +3 21 * < first subregion >< second subregion > G18 2OR +9OR +15OR +1OR +8 2OR +8 3OR +8 +18 * < 1st >< 2nd >< 3rd >< 4th >< 5th >< 6th > OR +12 10 11 13 14 *< blank >< 7th and last subregion > (continuation line) Region END card
FREE FORMAT REGION INPUTREE FORMAT REGION INPUTFREE FORMAT REGION INPUT948 >Each region is described as a combination of one or more bodies, by means of the three operator symbols: , +,  referring respectively to the boolean operations of subtraction (or
complement), intersection and union.
REGNAME NAZ boolean zone expression or REGNAME NAZ  boolean zone expression  boolean zone expression  ... where REGNAME, NAZ and the remaining part are separated by one or more blanks.
Meaning of the operators:
Obviously, in the description of each region the symbol + must appear at least
once. The same is true for each zone (subregion delimited by  operators) and
for each zone component (subzone delimited by parentheses)
lastlayr 4 +bigball +slab * Region "lastlayr" is the part of space common to body "bigball" and body * "slab" MidVacuu 7 +cylind2 slit sqrhole +Plane1 * Region "MidVacuu" is the part of space common to bodies "cylind2" and * "Plane1", excluding however that which is inside body "slit" and that which * is inside body "sqrhole" H2Osphere 5 +marble * Region "H2Osphere" coincides entirely with body "marble" Examples of regions consisting of the union of several zones, possibly (but not necessarily) partially overlapping: Corners 6  +dice +topNorth  +dice +topEast  +dice +topSouth  +dice +topWest  +dice +botNorth  +dice +botEast  +dice +botSouth  +dice +botWest * Region "Corners" is made of the 8 corners of a cube, each of which is * obtained by the intersection of a cubic body "dice" and a tilted plane * described by vector pointing to the centre of the cube twoparts 0  +leftpart outerbox  +rghtpart +topplane * Region "twoparts" is the sum of two parts of space: the space points which * are inside body "leftpart" but not inside body öuterbox", plus those which * are common to bodies "rghtpart" and "topplane" Examples of a region defined as a single zone by means of parentheses: AirAroun 5 + tunnel + Column  (+outrpipeinnrpipe) * Region "AirAroun" contains the space points located inside the intersection * of body "tunnel" and body "Column", with the exception of those which are * inside body öutrpipe" but not inside body "innrpipe" CmplexRg  +longcyl + (+shortcyl +vertPla1 vertPla2)  (+Brick  + ceeling  floor) * Region CmplexRg is the union of two zones. The first zone is the * intersection of body "longcyl" with a portion of space contained inside * both bodies "shortcyl" and "vertPla1" but not inside body "vertPla2". * The second zone is the union of the space points inside body "Brick" * and the space points contained by body "ceeling" but located outside * body "floor". Region END card
Region VolumesThis is an optional set of cards which must be input if (and only if) flag IVOPT in the CG Title card has been given a value 3. As many volume definition cards must be given as is needed to input a volume for every region. The input variable is an array VNOR(I) = volume of the Ith region. The format is (7E10.5). Volume data are used by FLUKA only to normalise energy or star densities in regions requested by the SCORE command. 8.7 LATTICE card
This is an optional card for modular geometries. Its use needs some more effort and preparation:
In the LATTICE card, the meanings of the WHAT parameters are: WHAT(1) = "Containerregion" number of the first lattice cell ("From region WHAT(1)...") No default WHAT(2) = "Containerregion" number of the last lattice cell ("...to region WHAT(2)...") Default = WHAT(1) WHAT(3) = step length in assigning "Containerregion" numbers ("...in steps of WHAT(3)"). Default = 1. WHAT(4) = lattice number of the first lattice cell (or corresponding name), assigned to region WHAT(1) No default WHAT(5) = lattice number of the last lattice cell (or corresponding name), assigned to region WHAT(2) WHAT(6) = step length in assigning cell numbers/names ("...in steps of WHAT(6)"). Default = 1. SDUM = possible index of transformation associated with this lattice. Exceptionally, here SDUM can contain an integer number, in free format, following any of the strings "ROT#", "Rot#", "rot#", "RO#", "Ro#", "ro#. If any one of such strings is present, an integer identifying the associated rototranslation is read in the following characters. If no such string is found, the LATTIC user routine will be called whenever a transformation is required. A single geometry can be a mixture of modular areas, described by lattices,
and "normal" areas, described by standard regions.
Many different LATTICE cards may be issued in the same geometry,
when different symmetries are present in different areas. In principle,
any analytical symmetry transformation can be implemented
(rotation, translation, reflection, or combination of these).
8.8 GEOEND card
EOEND cardGEOEND card948 >
A card with the string GEOEND in column 16 must terminate the combinatorial geometry input. Geometry debuggerThe GEOEND card can be used also to activate the geometry debugger,
using the WHAT and SDUM parameters. In this case, a second GEOEND
card (continuation) may be necessary. It is recommended that a STOP
card should follow immediately, avoiding to start transport when
debugging is completed.
WHAT(1) = X_max of the geometry region to be debugged (no default) WHAT(2) = Y_max of the geometry region to be debugged (no default) WHAT(3) = Z_max of the geometry region to be debugged (no default) WHAT(4) = X_min of the geometry region to be debugged (no default) WHAT(5) = Y_min of the geometry region to be debugged (no default) WHAT(6) = Z_min of the geometry region to be debugged (no default) SDUM: must be = DEBUG to activate the debugger 2nd (optional) GEOEND card: WHAT(1) = Number of steps in the xdirection between X_min and X_max (default: 20) WHAT(2) = Number of steps in the ydirection between Y_min and Y_max (default: 20) WHAT(3) = Number of steps in the zdirection between Z_min and Z_max (default: 20) WHAT(4,5,6) : not used SDUM = & in any position in column 71 to 78 See the Notes to GEOEND option for more details and instructions. 8.9 Voxel Geometry
It is possible to describe a complex geometry in terms of "voxels" (tiny
parallelepipeds forming a 3dimensional grid). In principle this can be
done with any geometry but it is especially useful when translating a CT scan
of a human body into a dosimetry phantom [Zan01]. Therefore, we will use
loosely the word örgan" to indicate a contiguous group of voxels (or even
more than one group) made of the same material. The code handles each organ as a
Combinatorial Geometry region, possibly in addition to other conventional
"nonvoxel" regions defined by the user, and assigns automatically to each
organ a new region number.
WRITE(*,'(A,2I10)')' New number, old number: ', NO, IC After having modified the program (assumed to be in a file writegolem.f), compile it: fff writegolem.f link it with the FLUKA library: lfluka o writegolem writegolem.o execute it: writegolem The result will be a file golem.vxl (or equivalent name chosen by the user) which will be referred to by a special command line in the geometry input (see below). * PROGRAM WRITEGOLEM INCLUDE '(DBLPRC)' INCLUDE '(DIMPAR)' INCLUDE '(IOUNIT)' * COLUMNS: FROM LEFT TO RIGHT * ROWS: FROM BACK TO FRONT * SLICES: FROM TOP TO BOTTOM PARAMETER ( DX = 0.208D+00 ) PARAMETER ( DY = 0.208D+00 ) PARAMETER ( DZ =0.8D+00 ) PARAMETER ( NX = 256 ) PARAMETER ( NY = 256 ) PARAMETER ( NZ = 220 ) DIMENSION GOLEM(NX,NY,NZ) INTEGER*2 GOLEM CHARACTER TITLE*80 DIMENSION IREG(1000), KREG(1000) INTEGER*2 IREG, KREG * CALL CMSPPR DO IC = 1, 1000 KREG(IC) = 0 END DO OPEN(UNIT=30,FILE='ascii_segm_golem',STATUS='OLD') READ(30,*) GOLEM NO=0 MO=0 DO IZ=1,NZ DO IY=1,NY DO IX=1,NX IF (GOLEM(IX,IY,IZ) .GT. 0) THEN IC = GOLEM(IX,IY,IZ) MO = MAX (MO,IC) DO IR=1,NO IF (IREG(IR) .EQ. IC) GO TO 1000 END DO NO=NO+1 IREG(NO)=IC KREG(IC)=NO WRITE(*,'(A,2I10)')' New number, old number: ', NO, IC 1000 CONTINUE END IF END DO END DO END DO * NO = number of different organs * MO = max. organ number before compacting WRITE(*,*) ' NO,MO',NO,MO OPEN(UNIT=31,FILE='golem.vxl',STATUS='UNKNOWN',FORM='UNFORMATTED') TITLE = 'Golem' WRITE(31) TITLE WRITE(31) NX,NY,NZ,NO,MO WRITE(31) DX,DY,DZ WRITE(31) GOLEM WRITE(31) (KREG(IC),IC=1,MO) STOP END *
WHAT(1), WHAT(2), WHAT(3) = x, y, z coordinates chosen as the origin of the "voxel volume", i.e. of a region made of a single RPP body which contains all the voxels WHAT(4) = index (or name) of the ROTDEFIni card for an eventual roto/translation of the VOXELs WHAT(5), WHAT(6): not used SDUM = name of the voxel file (extension will be assumed to be .vxl).
Name Number Description    VOXEL NR+1 this is a sort of "cage" for all the voxels. Nothing (energy etc.) should ever be deposited in it: the user shall assign VACUUM to it VOXEL001 NR+2 containing all voxels belonging to organ number 0. There must be at least 2 of such voxels, but in general they should be many more. Typical material assignment to region NR+2 is AIR. VOXEL002 NR+3 corresponding to organ 1 VOXEL003 NR+4 corresponding to organ 2 ........ .... ........................ VOX##### NR+2+NO corresponding to organ NO Where NO = number of nonzero organs

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