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FLUKA 2021.2.2, September 25th 2021
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flair-2.3-0b 30-Jul-2021

News:

-- Fluka Release
( 25.09.2021 )

FLUKA 2021.2.2 has been released.
Fluka Release 30.07.2021 FLUKA 2021.2.1 has been released.
Fluka Major Release 18.05.2021 FLUKA 2021.2.0 has been released.
Congratulations from INFN: ,
Dear Paola,
I wish to congratulate you and all the authors and collaborators for this new Fluka release, which looks at the future and confirms the support of INFN in the development and continuous improvement of this code.
best regards
Diego Bettoni
INFN Executive Committee


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12 Generating and propagating optical photons

FLUKA can be used to generate and propagate optical photons of Cherenkov, scintillation and transition radiation light. Light generation is switched off by default and is activated and totally controlled by the user by means of data cards and user routines. This is true also for the optical properties of materials. These include the refraction index as a function of wave-length (or frequency or energy), the reflection coefficient of a given material, etc.

In this respect, the user has the responsibility of issuing the right input directives: the code does not perform any physics check on the assumptions about the light yield and the properties of material.

Optical photons (FLUKA id = -1) are treated according the laws of geometrical optics and therefore can be reflected and refracted at boundaries between different materials. From the physics point of view, optical photons have a certain energy (sampled according to the generation parameters given by the user) and carry along their polarisation information. Cherenkov photons are produced with their expected polarisation, while scintillation photons are assumed to be unpolarised. At each reflection or refraction, polarisation is assigned or modified according to optics laws derived from Maxwell equations.

At a boundary between two materials with different refraction index, an optical photon is propagated (refracted) or reflected with a relative probability calculated according to the laws of optics.

Furthermore, optical photons can be absorbed in flight (if the user defines a non zero absorption coefficient for the material under consideration) or elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering) if the user defines a non zero diffusion coefficient for the material under consideration).

In order to deal with optical photon problems, two specific input cards are available to the user:

  OPT-PROP: to set optical properties of materials.
  OPT-PROD: to manage light generation.

See the corresponding detailed description of these options and of their parameters in Chapter (7).

Some user routines are also available for a more complete representation of the physical problem:

   RFRNDX: to specify a refraction index as a function of wavelength,
           frequency or energy
   RFLCTV: to specify the reflectivity of a material.
           This can be activated by card OPT-PROP with SDUM = METAL and
           WHAT(3) < -99.
   OPHBDX: to set optical properties of a boundary surface. The call
           is activated by card OPT-PROP with SDUM = SPEC-BDX.
   FRGHNS: to set a possible degree of surface roughness, in order to have
           both diffusive and specular reflectivity from a given material
           surface.
   QUEFFC: to request a detailed quantum efficiency treatment. This is
           activated by card OPT-PROP with SDUM = SENSITIV, setting the
           0-th optical photon sentitivity parameter to a value lesser
           than -99 (WHAT(1) < -99).

All running values of optical photon tracking are contained in the TRACKR common block, just as for the other ordinary elementary particles.

12.1 Cherenkov transport and quantum efficiency

In order to use quantum efficiency (using the QUEFFC routine) the user must input a sensitivity < -100 using the OPT-PROP option with SDUM = SENSITIV).

That option sets the quantum efficiency as a function of photon energy OVERALL through the problem and it is not material/region dependent. The reason is that it is applied ä priori" at photon generation time (for obvious time saving reasons). Here below is an explanation taken directly from the code.

  • current particle is at a given position, in a given material
  • Cherenkov (or scintillation) photons are going to be produced
  • the photon generation probability is immediately reduced over the whole energy spectrum according to the maximum quantum efficiency of the problem.
    The latter, set as WHAT(5) in card OPT-PROD, IS MEANINGFUL EVEN IF ROUTINE QUEFFC IS USED, see below
  • the detailed efficiency, set again by the OPT-PROD card with SDUM = SENSITIV or by routine QUEFFC, is used for a further reduction when the actual energy of each individual photon is selected (rejecting it against Q.E.(omega)/Q.E._max, where omega = photon angular frequency)

Summarising, the yes/no detection check is done AT PRODUCTION and NOT AT DETECTION: this in order to substantially cut down CPU time. If one wants all photons to be produced the sensitivity must be set = 1. Then it is still possibile to apply a quantum efficiency curve AT DETECTION, by means of the user weighting routine FLUSCW (see (13)) or by a user-written off-line code.

Since the quantum efficiency curve provided by OPT-PROD with SDUM = SENSITIV is applied at production and not at detection, it is not known which material the photon will eventually end up in.

Furthermore, WHAT(5) must be set anyway equal to the maximum quantum efficiency over the photon energy range under consideration. One cannot use the QUEFFC routine as a way to provide an initial screening on the produced photons, i.e. to use a "safe" initial guess for the quantum efficiency (say, for instance 20%) and then, at detection, to refine it through more sophisticated curves, i.e. rejecting against the actual quantum efficiency/0.2 (this again can be done in routine FLUSCW). This makes sense of course if the user has different quantum efficiency curves for different detectors (one should use in QUEFFC the curve that maximises all of them and then refine it by rejection case by case), or if the quantum efficiency is position/angle dependent upon arrival on the photomultiplier (again one should use inside QUEFFC the quantum efficiency for the most efficient position/angle and refine by rejection at detection time.

Optical photons are absorbed in those material where the user selected properties dictate absorption, i.e. metals or materials with a non zero absorption cross section. These absorption events can be detected in different ways. For instance:

  • through energy deposition by particle -1 (optical photons have always id = -1), photons usually deposit all energy in one step (since only absorption and coherent scattering are implemented). So one can check for JTRACK = -1 and energy deposition (RULL) in a given region (e.g., the photocathode of the PMT). One can also apply an extra quantum efficiency selection, e.g. using the COMSCW user routine.
  • through boundary crossing of particles -1 into the given region,
    however this is correct if and only if absorption is set such that the photon will not survive crossing the region. Again further selections can be performed, e.g., using the FLUSCW user routine.

12.2 Handling optical photons

In order to help the user to understand how to deal with optical photons, in the following we describe two input files respectively concerning the production in Liquid Argon of Cherenkov (section 12.2.3}) and Scintillation light (section 12.2.4}). A specific user routine, giving the refraction index of Liquid Argon as a function of wave-length is also shown (section 12.2.2}).

It is a very simple case, in which muons are generated inside a box filled with Liquid Argon. Notice that at present it is not yet possible to request optical photons as primary particles via the BEAM card. Therefore light must be generated starting from ordinary particles, or by a special user-written SOURCE routine, where optical photons are loaded into their dedicated stack (OPPHST) instead of that of ordinary particles (FLKSTK). An example of such SOURCE is shown in 1.2.1}.

The examples presented here consider 0.5 GeV muons in a box of 4 x 4 x 4 m^3. In order to avoid unnecessary complications in the example, secondary particle production by muons is switched off. Of course this is not required in real problems.

As far as the output is concerned, the following example proposes a standard energy spectrum scoring at a boundary (option USRBDX) applied to optical photons, together with a user-specific output built via the MGDRAW user routine (see Chap. (13)), where a dump of optical photon tracking is inserted. At the end of this section (in section 12.2.5}) we shall propose the relevant code lines to be inserted in MGDRAW (activated by the USERDUMP card), together with an example of readout (section 12.2.6}).


12.2.1 Example of SOURCE routine for optical photons

OURCE routine for optical photons|Example of SOURCE routine for optical photons|98|12| -->

 *$ CREATE SOURCE.FOR
 *COPY SOURCE
 *
 *=== source ===========================================================*
 *
       SUBROUTINE SOURCE ( NOMORE )

       INCLUDE '(DBLPRC)'
       INCLUDE '(DIMPAR)'
       INCLUDE '(IOUNIT)'
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *                                                                      *
 *     Copyright (C) 1990-2009      by    Alfredo Ferrari & Paola Sala  *
 *     All Rights Reserved.                                             *
 *                                                                      *
 *                                                                      *
 *     New source for FLUKA9x-FLUKA20xy:                                *
 *                                                                      *
 *     Created on 07 january 1990   by    Alfredo Ferrari & Paola Sala  *
 *                                                   Infn - Milan       *
 *                                                                      *
 *     Last change on 08-feb-09     by    Alfredo Ferrari               *
 *                                                                      *
 *  This is just an example of a possible user written source routine.  *
 *  note that the beam card still has some meaning - in the scoring the *
 *  maximum momentum used in deciding the binning is taken from the     *
 *  beam momentum.  Other beam card parameters are obsolete.            *
 *                                                                      *
 *       Output variables:                                              *
 *                                                                      *
 *              Nomore = if > 0 the run will be terminated              *
 *                                                                      *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *
       INCLUDE '(BEAMCM)'
       INCLUDE '(FHEAVY)'
       INCLUDE '(FLKSTK)'
       INCLUDE '(IOIOCM)'
       INCLUDE '(LTCLCM)'
       INCLUDE '(PAPROP)'
       INCLUDE '(SOURCM)'
       INCLUDE '(SUMCOU)'
       INCLUDE '(OPPHST)'
       INCLUDE '(TRACKR)'
 *
       LOGICAL LFIRST
 *
       SAVE LFIRST
       DATA LFIRST / .TRUE. /
 *======================================================================*
 *                                                                      *
 *                 BASIC VERSION                                        *
 *                                                                      *
 *======================================================================*
       NOMORE = 0
 *  +-------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *  |  First call initializations:
       IF ( LFIRST ) THEN
 *  |  *** The following 3 cards are mandatory ***
          TKESUM = ZERZER
          LFIRST = .FALSE.
          LUSSRC = .TRUE.
 *  |  *** User initialization ***
       END IF
 *  |
 *  +-------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *  Push one source particle to the stack. Note that you could as well
 *  push many but this way we reserve a maximum amount of space in the
 *  stack for the secondaries to be generated
 * LSTOPP is the stack counter: of course any time source is called it
 * must be =0
       IJBEAM = -1
       LSTOPP = LSTOPP + 1
 *     Weight of optical photon
       WTOPPH (LSTOPP) = ONEONE
       WEIPRI = WEIPRI + WTOPPH (LSTOPP)
       NUMOPH = NUMOPH + 1
       IF ( NUMOPH .GT. 1000000000 ) THEN
          MUMOPH = MUMOPH + 1
          NUMOPH = NUMOPH - 1000000000
       END IF
       WOPTPH = WOPTPH + ONEONE
 *
 *     Insert in POPTPH (LSTOPP) the proper energy for optical photon
 *
       POPTPH (LSTOPP) = 4.D-09
       DONEAR (LSTOPP) = ZERZER
 *     Injection coordinates of optical photon
       XOPTPH (LSTOPP) = XBEAM
       YOPTPH (LSTOPP) = YBEAM
       ZOPTPH (LSTOPP) = ZBEAM
 *     Initial direction cosines of optical photon
       TXOPPH (LSTOPP) = UBEAM
       TYOPPH (LSTOPP) = VBEAM
       TZOPPH (LSTOPP) = WBEAM
 *  Set-up the polarization vector
       TXPOPP (LSTOPP) = -TWOTWO
       TYPOPP (LSTOPP) = ZERZER
       TZPOPP (LSTOPP) = ZERZER
 *  age
       AGOPPH (LSTOPP) = ZERZER
 * total path
       CMPOPP (LSTOPP) = ZERZER
 * Particle generation
       LOOPPH (LSTOPP) = 1
       LOUOPP (LSTOPP) = LLOUSE
       DO 2100 ISPR = 1, MKBMX1
          SPAROK (ISPR,LSTOPP) = ZERZER
  2100 CONTINUE
       DO 2200 ISPR = 1, MKBMX2
          ISPORK (ISPR,LSTOPP) = 0
  2200 CONTINUE
       TKESUM = TKESUM + POPTPH (LSTOPP) * WTOPPH (LSTOPP)
 *
       CALL GEOCRS ( TXOPPH (LSTOPP), TYOPPH (LSTOPP), TZOPPH (LSTOPP)
      &     )
       CALL GEOREG ( XOPTPH (LSTOPP), YOPTPH (LSTOPP), ZOPTPH (LSTOPP)
      &     ,NREGOP (LSTOPP), IDISC )
 *  Do not change these cards:
       CALL GEOHSM ( IHSPNT, 1, -11, MLATTC )
       NLATOP (LSTOPP) = MLATTC
       CALL SOEVSV
       RETURN
 *=== End of subroutine Source =========================================*
       END


12.2.2 Routine assigning a continuous Refraction Index as a function of

Wave-Length

Notice that in this example, a check is performed on the material number. In the following problems, the light will be generated on material no. 18. In order to avoid problems a FLUKA abort is generated if the routine is called by mistake for a different material.

 *
 *=== Rfrndx ===========================================================*
 *
       DOUBLE PRECISION FUNCTION RFRNDX ( WVLNGT, OMGPHO, MMAT )

       INCLUDE '(DBLPRC)'
       INCLUDE '(DIMPAR)'
       INCLUDE '(IOUNIT)'
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *                                                                      *
 *     user defined ReFRaction iNDeX:                                   *
 *                                                                      *
 *     Created on 19 September 1998 by    Alfredo Ferrari & Paola Sala  *
 *                                                   Infn - Milan       *
 *                                                                      *
 *     Last change on 25-Oct-02     by    Alfredo Ferrari               *
 *                                                                      *
 *                                                                      *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *
       INCLUDE '(FLKMAT)'
 *
 * Check on the material number
 *
       IF ( MMAT .NE. 18 ) THEN
          CALL FLABRT ( 'RFRNDX', 'MMAT IS NOT SCINTILLATOR!' )
       END IF
 *
       WL     =  WVLNGT * 1.D+07
       RFRNDX = ONEONE
      &       + 9.39373D+00*(4.15D-08/(0.000087892D+00 - WL**(-2))
      &       + 2.075D-07 / (0.000091012D+00 - WL**(-2))
      &       + 4.333D-06 / (0.00021402 D+00 - WL**(-2)))
       RETURN
 *=== End of function Rfrndx ===========================================*
       END


12.2.3 Input Example no. 1: Only Cherenkov light is generated

Cherenkov light generation depends on the refraction index. Among the different possibilities, here we have chosen to give the refraction index by means of the user routine shown above.

The relevant data cards are commented.

The value inserted for light absorption in this example is arbitrary, while the mean free path for Rayleigh scattering is the result obtained from measurements performed in the framework of the Icarus collaboration.

 TITLE
 Test of Cherenkov light production in Liquid Argon
 DEFAULTS                                                              PRECISIO
 *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8
 BEAM         -10.000                                                  MUON+
 BEAMPOS          0.0       0.0     190.0                              NEGATIVE
 DELTARAY        -1.0                          18.0      18.0
 PAIRBREM        -3.0                          18.0      18.0
 MUPHOTON        -1.0                          18.0      18.0
 PHOTONUC        -1.0                           3.0     100.0
 IONTRANS        -6.0
 DISCARD         27.0      28.0      43.0      44.0       5.0       6.0
 GEOBEGIN                                                              COMBINAT
                                Test
 *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8
 * A large box for the blackhole
   RPP    1 -9999999. +9999999. -9999999. +9999999. -9999999. +9999999.
 * A smaller box for for liquid argon
   RPP    2    -200.0    +200.0    -200.0    +200.0    -200.0    +200.0
   END
 *== Region Definitions =================================================
 *      1) Blackhole
   BL1          +1     -2
 *      2) Liquid Argon
   LG3          +2
   END
 GEOEND
 *  Switch off electron and photon transport
 EMF                                                                   EMF-OFF
 *
 MATERIAL        18.0    39.948     1.400      18.0                    ARGON
 *  Select neutron cross sections at liquid argon temperature
 LOW-MAT         18.0      18.0      -2.0      87.0                    ARGON
 *
 ASSIGNMAT        1.0       1.0      500.       1.0       0.0
 ASSIGNMAT       18.0       2.0       2.0
 *
 * Set Light production/transport properties: from 100 to 600 nm in all materials
 OPT-PROP   1.000E-05 3.500E-05 6.000E-05       3.0     100.0          WV-LIMIT
 * Set all materials to "metal" with 0 reflectivity:
 OPT-PROP                             1.0       3.0     100.0          METAL
 * resets all previous properties for material n. 18 (Liquid Argon)
 OPT-PROP                                      18.0                    RESET
 * switches off scintillation light production in material n. 18 (Liq. Argon)
 OPT-PROD                                      18.0                    SCIN-OFF
 * defines Cherenkov production for material n. 18 (Liq. Argon)
 OPT-PROD   1.100E-05 5.500E-05                18.0                    CEREN-WV
 * The following card restores the wave-length limits for material n. 18
 OPT-PROP   1.000E-05 3.500E-05 6.000E-05      18.0                    WV-LIMIT
 * The following card, for material n. 18:
 * a) calls the RFRNDX user routine (to define the refraction index
 *    vs wave-length (WHAT(1)< -99)
 * b) sets to 1000 cm the mean free path for absorption.
 * c) sets to 90 cm the mean free path for Rayleigh scattering.
 OPT-PROP      -100.0     0.001   0.01111      18.0
 * The following card defines the "Sensitivity" in order to introduce the
 * maximum Quantum Efficiency at generation level.
 * Here 1/10 of photons is actually generated.
 * Fluctuations are properly sampled
 OPT-PROP         0.1                                     0.1          SENSITIV
 SCORE          208.0     211.0     201.0     210.0
 RANDOMIZ         1.0
 *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8
 USRBDX           1.0      -1.0     -55.0       2.0       1.0          Opt.Phot
 USRBDX      12.0E-09       0.0     120.0                                 &
 USERDUMP        111.                  2.                              MGDRAW
 START        10000.0
 STOP


12.2.4 Input Example no. 2: Only Scintillation light is concerned

Here it is necessary to point out that, at present, FLUKA can generate scintillation lines only for monochromatic lines. A maximum number of 3 different lines is possible. The value inserted here (128 nm) is the correct one for Liquid Argon. The fraction of deposited energy going into scintillation light depends on the degree of recombination after ionisation.

Again, the value used here is a parameter justified in the framework of the Icarus collaboration, where about 20000 photons/MeV of deposited energy have been measured for the electric field of 500 V/cm (the field used in Icarus). A different electric field intensity will change the degree of recombination and therefore the light yield.

 TITLE
 Test of scintillation light production in Liquid Argon
 DEFAULTS                                                              PRECISIO
 BEAM      -0.5000                                                     MUON+
 BEAMPOS    0.0        0.0      199.0                                  NEGATIVE
 *
 DELTARAY  -1.0                          18.0      18.0
 PAIRBREM  -3.0                          18.0      18.0
 MUPHOTON  -1.0                          18.0      18.0
 PHOTONUC  -1.0                           3.0      100.0
 IONTRANS  -6.0
 DISCARD    27.0      28.0     43.0      44.0       5.0       6.0
 GEOBEGIN                                                              COMBINAT
                                Test
 *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8
 * A large box for the blackhole
   RPP    1 -9999999. +9999999. -9999999. +9999999. -9999999. +9999999.
 * A SMALLER BOX FOR FOR LIQUID ARGON
   RPP    2    -200.0    +200.0    -200.0    +200.0    -200.0    +200.0
   END
 *== Region Definitions =================================================
 *      1) Blackhole
   BL1          +1     -2
 *      2) Liquid Argon
   LG3          +2
   END
 GEOEND
 *
 EMF                                                                   EMF-OFF
 *
 MATERIAL        18.0    39.948     1.400      18.0                    ARGON
 LOW-MAT         18.0      18.0      -2.0      87.0                    ARGON
 ASSIGNMAT        1.0       1.0       500.      1.0       0.0
 ASSIGNMAT       18.0       2.0       2.0
 *
 * Set Light production/transport properties: from 100 to 600 nm in all materials
 OPT-PROP   1.000E-05 1.280E-05 6.000E-05       3.0     100.0          WV-LIMIT
 * Set all materials to "metal" with 0 reflectivity:
 OPT-PROP                             1.0       3.0     100.0          METAL
 * resets all previous properties for material n. 18 (Liquid Argon)
 OPT-PROP                                      18.0                    RESET
 * switches off Cherenkov light production in material n. 18 (Liquid Argon)
 OPT-PROD                                      18.0                    CERE-OFF
 * defines Scint. light production for material n. 18 (Liq. Argon). Parameters:
 * a) wavelength (cm) of first scintillation line.
 * b) fraction of deposited energy going into scint. light
 *    (in Liquid Argon ~ 2 10**4 photons/MeV)
 OPT-PROD   1.280E-05 9.686E-02                18.0                    SCINT-WV
 * The following card restores the wave-length limits for material n. 18
 OPT-PROP   1.000E-05 1.280E-05 6.000E-05      18.0                    WV-LIMIT
 * The following card, for material n. 18:
 * a) calls the RFRNDX user routine (to define the refraction index
 *    vs wave-length (WHAT(1)< -99)
 * b) sets to 1000 cm the mean free path for absorption.
 * c) sets to 90 cm the mean free path for Rayleigh scattering
 OPT-PROP      -100.0     0.001   0.01111      18.0
 * The following card defines the "Sensitivity" in order to introduce the
 * maximum Quantum Efficiency at generation level. Here 1/10 of photons are
 * actually generated.
 * Fluctuations are properly sampled
 *...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8
 OPT-PROP         0.1                                     0.1          SENSITIV
 SCORE          208.0     211.0     201.0     210.0
 RANDOMIZ         1.0
 *
 USRBDX           1.0      -1.0     -55.0       2.0       1.0          Opt.Phot
 USRBDX      12.0E-09       0.0     120.0                                 &
 USERDUMP        111.                  2.                              MGDRAW
 START         10000.
 STOP


12.2.5 User output for optical photons from USERDUMP

SERDUMP|User output for optical photons from USERDUMP|98|12| -->

The user can request any kind of standard FLUKA output for optical photons and also a user specific output, starting for instance from the MGDRAW user routine. Here an example follows, where a few variables are simply recorded in the output "collision tape" (dump file) at each step in the tracking only for particle id = -1 (optical photons).

It can be useful, in order to exploit the flags available in this routine, and explained in the different comments, to know that the FLUKA routine which drives the transport of optical photons is KASOPH.

The content of the TRACKR common can be used to fully exploit the possibilities offered from the use of MGDRAW routine (see Chap. (13)).

Warning: in the present version of FLUKA, there is not yet the possibility of using the User Particle Properties for optical photons (variables SPAUSR, ISPUSR and the STUPFR user routine)

 *                                                                      *
 *=== mgdraw ===========================================================*
 *                                                                      *
       SUBROUTINE MGDRAW ( ICODE, MREG )

       INCLUDE '(DBLPRC)'
       INCLUDE '(DIMPAR)'
       INCLUDE '(IOUNIT)'
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *                                                                      *
 *     MaGnetic field trajectory DRAWing: actually this entry manages   *
 *                                        all trajectory dumping for    *
 *                                        drawing                       *
 *                                                                      *
 *     Created on   01 march 1990   by        Alfredo Ferrari           *
 *                                              INFN - Milan            *
 *     last change  05-may-06       by        Alfredo Ferrari           *
 *                                              INFN - Milan            *
 *                                                                      *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *
       INCLUDE '(CASLIM)'
       INCLUDE '(COMPUT)'
       INCLUDE '(SOURCM)'
       INCLUDE '(FHEAVY)'
       INCLUDE '(FLKSTK)'
       INCLUDE '(GENSTK)'
       INCLUDE '(MGDDCM)'
       INCLUDE '(PAPROP)'
       INCLUDE '(QUEMGD)'
       INCLUDE '(SUMCOU)'
       INCLUDE '(TRACKR)'
 *
       DIMENSION DTQUEN ( MXTRCK, MAXQMG )
 *
       CHARACTER*20 FILNAM
       LOGICAL LFCOPE
       SAVE LFCOPE
       DATA LFCOPE / .FALSE. /
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *                                                                      *
 *     Icode = 1: call from Kaskad                                      *
 *     Icode = 2: call from Emfsco                                      *
 *     Icode = 3: call from Kasneu                                      *
 *     Icode = 4: call from Kashea                                      *
 *     Icode = 5: call from Kasoph                                      *
 *                                                                      *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *                                                                      *
       IF ( .NOT. LFCOPE ) THEN
          LFCOPE = .TRUE.
          IF ( KOMPUT .EQ. 2 ) THEN
             FILNAM = '/'//CFDRAW(1:8)//' DUMP A'
          ELSE
             FILNAM = CFDRAW
          END IF
          WRITE(*,*) 'TRAJECTORY OPEN!'
          WRITE(*,'(A)') 'FILNAM = ',FILNAM
          OPEN ( UNIT = IODRAW, FILE = FILNAM, STATUS = 'NEW', FORM =
      &          'UNFORMATTED' )
       END IF
 C
 C     Write trajectories of optical photons
 C
       IF(JTRACK .EQ. -1) THEN
          WRITE (IODRAW) NTRACK, MTRACK, JTRACK, SNGL (ETRACK),
      &        SNGL (WTRACK)
          WRITE (IODRAW) ( SNGL (XTRACK (I)), SNGL (YTRACK (I)),
      &        SNGL (ZTRACK (I)), I = 0, NTRACK ),
      &        ( SNGL (DTRACK (I)), I = 1,MTRACK ),
      &        SNGL (CTRACK)
          WRITE(IODRAW) SNGL(CXTRCK),SNGL(CYTRCK),SNGL(CZTRCK)
       ENDIF
       RETURN
 *
 *======================================================================*
 *                                                                      *
 *     Boundary-(X)crossing DRAWing:                                    *
 *                                                                      *
 *     Icode = 1x: call from Kaskad                                     *
 *             19: boundary crossing                                    *
 *     Icode = 2x: call from Emfsco                                     *
 *             29: boundary crossing                                    *
 *     Icode = 3x: call from Kasneu                                     *
 *             39: boundary crossing                                    *
 *     Icode = 4x: call from Kashea                                     *
 *             49: boundary crossing                                    *
 *     Icode = 5x: call from Kasoph                                     *
 *             59: boundary crossing                                    *
 *                                                                      *
 *======================================================================*
 *                                                                      *
       ENTRY BXDRAW ( ICODE, MREG, NEWREG, XSCO, YSCO, ZSCO )
       RETURN
 *
 *======================================================================*
 *                                                                      *
 *     Event End DRAWing:                                               *
 *                                                                      *
 *======================================================================*
 *                                                                      *
       ENTRY EEDRAW ( ICODE )
       RETURN
 *
 *======================================================================*
 *                                                                      *
 *     ENergy deposition DRAWing:                                       *
 *                                                                      *
 *     Icode = 1x: call from Kaskad                                     *
 *             10: elastic interaction recoil                           *
 *             11: inelastic interaction recoil                         *
 *             12: stopping particle                                    *
 *             13: pseudo-neutron deposition                            *
 *             14: escape                                               *
 *             15: time kill                                            *
 *     Icode = 2x: call from Emfsco                                     *
 *             20: local energy deposition (i.e. photoelectric)         *
 *             21: below threshold, iarg=1                              *
 *             22: below threshold, iarg=2                              *
 *             23: escape                                               *
 *             24: time kill                                            *
 *     Icode = 3x: call from Kasneu                                     *
 *             30: target recoil                                        *
 *             31: below threshold                                      *
 *             32: escape                                               *
 *             33: time kill                                            *
 *     Icode = 4x: call from Kashea                                     *
 *             40: escape                                               *
 *             41: time kill                                            *
 *             42: delta ray stack overflow                             *
 *     Icode = 5x: call from Kasoph                                     *
 *             50: optical photon absorption                            *
 *             51: escape                                               *
 *             52: time kill                                            *
 *                                                                      *
 *======================================================================*
 *                                                                      *
       ENTRY ENDRAW ( ICODE, MREG, RULL, XSCO, YSCO, ZSCO )
       RETURN
 *
 *======================================================================*
 *                                                                      *
 *     SOurce particle DRAWing:                                         *
 *                                                                      *
 *======================================================================*
 *
       ENTRY SODRAW
 *  |
 *  +-------------------------------------------------------------------*
       RETURN
 *
 *======================================================================*
 *                                                                      *
 *     USer dependent DRAWing:                                          *
 *                                                                      *
 *     Icode = 10x: call from Kaskad                                    *
 *             100: elastic   interaction secondaries                   *
 *             101: inelastic interaction secondaries                   *
 *             102: particle decay  secondaries                         *
 *             103: delta ray  generation secondaries                   *
 *             104: pair production secondaries                         *
 *             105: bremsstrahlung  secondaries                         *
 *             110: decay products                                      *
 *     Icode = 20x: call from Emfsco                                    *
 *             208: bremsstrahlung secondaries                          *
 *             210: Moller secondaries                                  *
 *             212: Bhabha secondaries                                  *
 *             214: in-flight annihilation secondaries                  *
 *             215: annihilation at rest   secondaries                  *
 *             217: pair production        secondaries                  *
 *             219: Compton scattering     secondaries                  *
 *             221: photoelectric          secondaries                  *
 *             225: Rayleigh scattering    secondaries                  *
 *     Icode = 30x: call from Kasneu                                    *
 *             300: interaction secondaries                             *
 *     Icode = 40x: call from Kashea                                    *
 *             400: delta ray  generation secondaries                   *
 *  For all interactions secondaries are put on GENSTK common (kp=1,np) *
 *  but for KASHEA delta ray generation where only the secondary elec-  *
 *  tron is present and stacked on FLKSTK common for kp=npflka          *
 *                                                                      *
 *======================================================================*
 *
       ENTRY USDRAW ( ICODE, MREG, XSCO, YSCO, ZSCO )
 * No output by default:
       RETURN
 *=== End of subroutine Mgdraw ==========================================*
       END


12.2.6 Readout of the sample user output

A sample program to readout the output obtained from the previously shown MGDRAW routine is here presented. In this example the key routine in the one called VXREAD, where some trivial output is sent to logical units 66 and 67. Of course the user must adapt such a readout program to his own needs.

       PROGRAM MGREAD
       CHARACTER FILE*80
 *
       WRITE (*,*)' Name of the binary file?'
       READ  (*,'(A)') FILE
       OPEN ( UNIT = 33, FILE = FILE, STATUS ='OLD',
      &       FORM = 'UNFORMATTED' )
  1000 CONTINUE
          WRITE (*,*)' Event number?'
          READ  (*,*) NCASE
          IF ( NCASE .LE. 0 ) GO TO 9999
          CALL VXREAD (NCASE)
       GO TO 1000
  9999 CONTINUE
       STOP
       END

       SUBROUTINE VXREAD (NCASE)
       PARAMETER (  MXH = 2000 )
       PARAMETER ( MXPR =  300 )
       DIMENSION XH   (MXH), YH   (MXH), ZH   (MXH), DH   (MXH),
      &          EPR (MXPR), WPR (MXPR), XPR (MXPR), YPR (MXPR),
      &          ZPR (MXPR), TXP (MXPR), TYP (MXPR), TZP (MXPR),
      &          IPR (MXPR)
 *
       LUNSCR = 33
       REWIND (LUNSCR)
 *
 *  +-------------------------------------------------------------------*
 *  |
       NEVT=0
       DO 4000 I=1,2000000000
          READ (LUNSCR,END=4100) NDUM,MDUM,JDUM,EDUM,WDUM
          IF(I.EQ.1) WRITE(*,*) 'NDUM,MDUM,JDUM,EDUM,WDUM',NDUM,MDUM,JDUM
      &        ,EDUM,WDUM
          NEVT = NEVT + 1
 *  |  +----------------------------------------------------------------*
 *  |  |  Real tracking data:
 *  |  +----------------------------------------------------------------*
          IF ( NDUM .GT. 0 ) THEN
             NTRACK=NDUM
             MTRACK=MDUM
             JTRACK=JDUM
             ETRACK=EDUM
             WTRACK=WDUM
             IF(NTRACK.GT.1) WRITE(67,*) 'NTRACK = ',NTRACK
             READ (LUNSCR)(XH(J),YH(J),ZH(J),J=1,NTRACK+1),
      &                   (DH(J),J=1,MTRACK), CTRACK
             READ (LUNSCR) CXX,CYY,CZZ
             IF(I.EQ.1) THEN
                WRITE(67,*) (XH(J),YH(J),ZH(J),J=1,NTRACK+1),
      &                   (DH(J),J=1,MTRACK), CTRACK
                WRITE(67,*) CXX,CYY,CZZ
             ENDIF
             DO J=1,NTRACK+1
                WRITE(67,*) XH(J),YH(J),ZH(J),
      &              CXX,CYY,CZZ
             END DO
             IF ( NEVT.EQ.NCASE ) THEN
                WRITE(66,*)' New step:'
                WRITE(66,*)'   Part.id.:',JTRACK,' Kin.En.:',ETRACK,
      &                    '   N.of substep:', NTRACK
                WRITE(66,*)'   X, Y, Z, i=0, # substep'
                WRITE(*,*)' New step:'
                WRITE(*,*)'   Part.id.:',JTRACK,' Kin.En.:',ETRACK,
      &                    '   N.of substep:', NTRACK
                WRITE(*,*)'   X, Y, Z, i=0, # substep'
             END IF
 *  |  |
 *  |  +----------------------------------------------------------------*
 *  |  |  Energy deposition data:
          ELSE IF ( NDUM .EQ. 0 ) THEN
             ICODE1=MDUM/10
             ICODE2=MDUM-ICODE1*10
             IJDEPO=JDUM
             ENPART=EDUM
             WDEPOS=WDUM
             READ (LUNSCR) XSCO, YSCO, ZSCO, ENDEPO
             IF ( NEVT.EQ.NCASE ) THEN
                WRITE(66,*) ' En. dep. code n.:',MDUM
                WRITE(66,*) IJDEPO,'   Tot. en. proj.:', ENPART,
      &                     ' Weight:',WDEPOS
                WRITE(66,*) '   Position:',XSCO,YSCO,ZSCO,
      &                     ' En. Dep.:',ENDEPO
             END IF
 *  |  |
 *  |  +----------------------------------------------------------------*
 *  |  |  Source particle:
          ELSE
             NEVT   =-NDUM
             LPRIMA = MDUM
             NSTMAX = JDUM
             TKESUM = EDUM
             WEIPRI = WDUM
             READ (LUNSCR) ( IPR(J),EPR(J),WPR(J),XPR(J),YPR(J),
      &                      ZPR(J),TXP(J),TYP(J),TZP(J),J=1,LPRIMA )
             DO J = 1, LPRIMA
                IF ( ABS(IPR(J)) .LT. 10000 ) THEN
                   LPTRUE=J
                END IF
             END DO
             LPROJ  = LPRIMA - LPTRUE
             LPRIMA = LPTRUE
             IF (NEVT .EQ. NCASE) THEN
                WRITE(66,*)' Event #',NEVT
                IF ( LPROJ .GT. 0) THEN
                   WRITE(66,*)
      &            '  Original projectile(s),n. of:',LPROJ
                   DO IJ = 1, LPROJ
                      J=LPRIMA+IJ
                      IPR(J) = IPR(J)/10000
                      WRITE(66,*) '    Part.id.:',IPR(J),' Kin.en.:',
      &                               EPR(J),' Weight:',WPR(J)
                      WRITE(66,*) IPR(J),EPR(J),WPR(J)
                      WRITE(66,*) '    Position :', XPR(J),YPR(J),ZPR(J)
                      WRITE(66,*) '    Direction:', TXP(J),TYP(J),TZP(J)
                   END DO
                END IF
                WRITE(66,*)'  Source particle(s), n. of:',LPRIMA
                DO J = 1, LPRIMA
                   WRITE(66,*) '    Part.id.:',IPR(J),' Kin.en.:',
      &                          EPR(J),' Weight:',WPR(J)
                   WRITE(66,*) '    Position :', XPR(J),YPR(J),ZPR(J)
                   WRITE(66,*) '    Direction:', TXP(J),TYP(J),TZP(J)
 C                  WRITE(67,*) XPR(J)/1.E+05,YPR(J)/1.E+05,ZPR(J)/1.E+05
                END DO
             END IF
             IF (NEVT.GT.NCASE) GO TO 4100
          END IF
 *  |  |
 *  |  +----------------------------------------------------------------*
  4000 CONTINUE
 *  |
 *  +-------------------------------------------------------------------*
  4100 CONTINUE
       RETURN
       END

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