Last version:
FLUKA 2021.2.1, July 26th 2021
(last respin )
flair-2.3-0b 30-Jul-2021

News:

-- Fluka Release
( 30.07.2021 )

FLUKA 2021.2.1 has been released.
Fluka Major Release 18.05.2021 FLUKA 2021.2.0 has been released.
Congratulations from INFN: ,
Dear Paola,
I wish to congratulate you and all the authors and collaborators for this new Fluka release, which looks at the future and confirms the support of INFN in the development and continuous improvement of this code.
best regards
Diego Bettoni
INFN Executive Committee


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EMF

activates ElectroMagnetic FLUKA: transport of electrons, positrons and photons

See also DEFAULTS, DELTARAY, EMF-BIAS, EMFCUT, EMFFIX, EMFFLUO, EMFRAY, MULSOPT, PHOTONUC

     WHAT(1-6): not used

     SDUM :    EMF-OFF to switch off electron and photon transport.
               Useful with the new defaults where EMF is on by default.

     Default: EMF on

     Default (option EMF not requested): if option DEFAULTS is not used, or if
               it is used with SDUM = NEW-DEFAults, CALORIMEtry, EM-CASCAde,
               HADROTHErapy, ICARUS or PRECISIOn, electrons, positrons and
               photons are transported.
               If DEFAULTS is used with SDUM = EET/TRANsmut, NEUTRONS, SHIELDINg
               or anything else, electrons, positrons and photons are not
               transported (see Note 2). To avoid their energy to be deposited
               at the point of production, it is generally recommended to
               discard those particles (see Note 5).

Notes:

  • 1) Option EMF is used to request a detailed transport of electrons, positrons and photons. Even if the primary particles are not photons or electrons, photons are created in high-energy hadron cascades, mainly as a product of pi0 decay, but also during evaporation and fission of excited nuclei; and capture gamma-rays are generated during low-energy neutrons transport. Electrons can arise from muon decay or can be set in motion in knock-on collisions by charged particles (delta-rays).

  • 2) If EMF has been turned off by overriding the default (by setting SDUM = EMF-OFF or by a DEFAULT option which switches off electron-photon transport, such as OLD-DEFAults, EET/TRANsmut, NEUTRONS, SHIELDINg, not accompanied by an explicit EMF request), such electrons, positrons and photons are not transported and their energy is deposited on the spot at the point of creation unless those particles are DISCARDed (see Note 5 below).

  • 3) Of course, it is also mandatory to request option EMF (either explicitly or implicitly via option DEFAULTS) in any pure electron, positron or photon problem (i.e. with electrons, positrons or photons as primary particles).

  • 4) Using EMF without any biasing can lead to very large computing times, especially in problems of high primary energy or with low energy cutoffs. See in particular leading-particle biasing with EMF-BIAS.

  • 5) In case of a pure hadron or neutron problem (e.g. neutron activation calculation) it is recommended to DISCARD electrons, positrons and photons (id-number 3, 4 and 7). In this case it is irrelevant whether the EMF card is present or not. Discarding only electrons and positrons, but not photons, may also be useful in some cases (for instance when calculating photon streaming in a duct).

  • 6) An alternative is to set very large energy cutoffs for electrons and positrons (see EMFCUT). That will result in the electron energy being deposited at the point of photon interaction (kerma approximation, often sufficient for transport of photons having an energy lower than a few MeV).

  • 7) Hadron photoproduction is dealt with by option PHOTONUC.

Example:

 *....+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7...+...8
 EMF                                                                    EMF-OFF
 *   This command must be issued without any WHAT parameter.

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