Last version:
FLUKA 2021.2.1, July 26th 2021
(last respin )
flair-2.3-0b 30-Jul-2021

News:

-- Fluka Release
( 30.07.2021 )

FLUKA 2021.2.1 has been released.
Fluka Major Release 18.05.2021 FLUKA 2021.2.0 has been released.
Congratulations from INFN: ,
Dear Paola,
I wish to congratulate you and all the authors and collaborators for this new Fluka release, which looks at the future and confirms the support of INFN in the development and continuous improvement of this code.
best regards
Diego Bettoni
INFN Executive Committee


font_small font_med font_big print_ascii

[ <--- prev -- ]  [ HOME ]  [ -- next ---> ]

[ full index ]


9 Output

The output of FLUKA consists of:

  • a main (standard) output, written on logical output unit LUNOUT (predefined as 11 by default)
  • two scratch files, of little interest to the user, written on output units LUNECH and LUNGEO (8 and 16 by default). However,
    if the rfluka script is used to run FLUKA, these files are automatically deleted by the script at the end of the run
  • a file with the last random number seeds, unit LUNRAN (2 by default)
  • a file of error messages (if any), unit LUNERR (15 by default)
  • any number (including zero) of estimator output files. Their corresponding logical unit number is defined by the user: in case the number chosen coincides with one of the above, in particular LUNOUT, estimator formatted output will appear as part of the corresponding output stream. However, this is not recommended,
    and it is not allowed anyway in the case of unformatted output.
    Generally, the user can choose between formatted and unformatted output. Only formatted output is presented here, while unformatted output is described at the end of each option description
  • possible additional output generated by the user in any user routine,
    in particular USROUT (see (13))

9.1 Main output

The standard, or main, output is made of several different parts:

  • A banner page
  • A header with the FLUKA version and the time when the output was printed
  • A straight echo of the input cards

Each input line is echoed in output, but not character by character. The input WHATs and SDUMs are read, and then written with a different format. Any alignment error shows up as a number or a character string different from the one intended: therefore in case of problems checking this part of the output is more effective than checking the input itself. Comments are reproduced in output, with the exception of in-line comments preceded by an exclamation mark (!)

  • Geometry output (if not redirected to a separate file, see GEOBEGIN)

The geometry output (which is part of the standard output by default, but can be re-directed to a separate file) begins with an echo of the geometry title and the value of the two input variables IVOPT (Input Volume OPTion) and IDBG (in the original CG a debugging flag, but now used to select various format lengths). Then there in an echo of the body and region input, including comment line, and some lines left over from the original MORSE CG, but which are of little or no meaning in the context of FLUKA: for instance the arrays IR1 and IR2 (material and biasing assignment to regions, which in FLUKA are not part of the geometry data). Other information concerns the memory allocation: FPD (Floating Point Data), INTEGER ARRAY, zone locations ("zone" and "region" have a different meaning in MORSE, but not in FLUKA). "Code zones" indicates the sub-regions defined by the input OR operator. The next sections, "Interpreted body echo" and "Interpreted region echo", show the numbers assigned by the program to bodies and regions defined by alphanumerical identifiers (if the traditional fixed format has been used, these output sections are of little interest). The interpreted echos are followed by the volumes used to normalize a possible output from option SCORE. Then, for each region in whose description the OR operator is used, one line similar to the following is printed at the end of the geometry output:

      *** Region # 2 Dnear according to    no    overlapping ORs ***
      *** Region # 3 Dnear according to possible overlapping ORs ***

This information concerns the possibility that random seed sequences might not be reproducible, a technical issue which does not affect the quality of the results but can be important for debugging or other purposes (see a more detailed explanation in a Note to option GLOBAL).

  • Basic nuclear data used in the program

The data reported are nuclear masses and model parameters used by the program. This output section is constant and does not depend on the problem input (it is printed even if the calculation is purely electromagnetical and does not depend on nuclear models).

  • Information on physical models used in the run

The nuclear models used by FLUKA to describe intermediate nuclear effects and interactions have been continuously improved since 1989. Each improvement has been first implemented and tested as an option that the user could request via the EVENTYPE command. These improvements are still optional in principle, although they are automatically activated if the user chooses the appropriate defaults. Depending on the latter and on the input options used, an informative message is issued concerning the presence of the following:

       Evaporation from residual nucleus
       Production of deexcitation gammas
       Transport of heavy evaporation products
       High Energy fission
       Fermi Break-Up

  • Material quantities related to multiple scattering

The values of various quantities used by the FLUKA multiple Coulomb scattering algorithm are printed for each material and for each type of charged particle.

  • Memory allocation information

Starting and ending location in memory of various arrays dynamically allocated are printed at different points on main output, depending on the order of input cards.

  • Table of correspondence between materials used in the run and materials in the low-energy neutron cross section library.

Example:

     *** Fluka to Morse material correspondence: printed atomic densities are
         meaningless when used in a compound ***

   Fluka medium     Name    Morse medium  atomic density   Id. 1  Id. 2   Id. 3
     number                   number     ( at/(cm barn) )
         1        BLCKHOLE         0         0.0000E+00        0      0       0
         2        VACUUM        1000         0.0000E+00        0      0       0
         6        CARBON           1         0.0000E+00        6     -2     293
         7        NITROGEN         2         0.0000E+00        7     -2     293
         8        OXYGEN           3         5.3787E-05        8     16     293
        17        LEAD             5         3.2988E-02       82     -2     293
        21        ARGON            4         0.0000E+00       18     -2     293

Compounds are not listed in this table, since for the time being the FLUKA neutron library contains only single elements or nuclides. "Fluka medium number" refers to the material number given by the user via WHAT(4) in option MATERIAL; "Morse medium number" is the material index used internally by the FLUKA low-energy neutron package (originally derived from the MORSE code). Such index is assigned only to library materials actually used in the current problem, unlike "FLUKA media" which can be predefined or defined in input, without being actually assigned to any region. Blackhole and vacuum are always assigned Morse index 0 and 1000. Atomic densities refer to the material in its elemental form and are printed as 0.0000E+00 if the corresponding element is used only as part of a compound. The last 3 columns in the table are the material identifiers unique to each library material (see (10) and option LOW-MAT).

  • Information on the low-energy neutron cross sections

If low-energy neutrons are transported, some problem-specific information may be printed, e.g. materials for which recoil or (n,p) protons are produced explicitly and not accounted for by kerma factors (usually hydrogen and nitrogen), or materials for which pointwise cross sections are used (see LOW-NEUT, WHAT(6)). This is followed by generic information on the neutron cross section library used (number of energy groups and angles, number of materials, etc.). If the user requests a more detailed printout (option LOW-NEUT) the following information is printed, depending on the value of WHAT(4):

      WHAT(4) = 1.:
         for each neutron energy group:
           - group energy limits
           - average energies
           - velocities and momenta corresponding to the group energy limits
           - energy limits of each gamma group
           - thermal neutron velocities
         for each material used: availability of residual nuclei information
            and, for each neutron energy group:
            SIGT   = total cross section in barn
            SIGST  = "scattering" cross section in barn. Actually it is equal
                     to sigma(n,n) + 2*sigma(n,2n) + 3*sigma(n,3n) etc.
            PNUP   = upscatter probability (can be different from zero only if
                     there are several thermal groups)
            PNABS  = probability of Non-ABSorption (= scattering).
                     It is = SIGST/SIGT, and can sometimes be > 1 because of
                     (n,xn) reactions
            GAMGEN = GAMma GENeration probability = gamma production cross
                     section divided by SIGT and multiplied by the average
                     number of gammas per (n,gamma) reaction
            NU*FIS = fission neutron production = fission cross section divided
                     by SIGT and multiplied by nu, the average number of
                     neutrons per fission
            EDEP   = Kerma contribution in GeV per collision
            PNEL, PXN, PFISS, PNGAM = partial cross sections, expressed as
                     probabilities (i.e. ratios to SIGT). In the order:
                     non-elastic, (n,xn), fission, (n,gamma)
            The line: (RESIDUAL NUCLEI INFORMATIONS AVAILABLE), if present,
            indicates the possibility to use option RESNUCLEi with
            WHAT(1) = 2.0.
      WHAT(4) = 2.: the same as above plus:
         for each material used and for each neutron energy group:
           - the downscattering matrix (group-to-group transfer probabilities),
             as in the following example:

 1                     CROSS SECTIONS FOR MEDIA     4
             .............................................................
             (RESIDUAL NUCLEI INFORMATIONS AVAILABLE)
          GROUP....DOWNSCATTER MATRIX
             .............................................................
             6....0.4927  0.0148  0.0006  0.0012  0.0017  0.0023  0.0028  0.0033
                  0.0038  0.0045  0.0056  0.0070  0.0087  0.0104  0.0120  0.0134
                  0.0149  0.0163  0.0175  0.0184  0.0190  0.0193  0.0193  0.0190
                  0.0185  0.0178  0.0164  0.0329  0.0311  0.0278  0.0247  0.0219
                  0.0198  0.0158  0.0126  0.0101  0.0112  0.0070  0.0026  0.0008
                  0.0004  0.0002  0.0001  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
                  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
                  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
                  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
              .............................................................

             The above table means: after scattering in material 4 of a neutron
             in energy group 6, the probability of getting a neutron in the
             same group is 49.27%; that to get a neutron in the following group
             (group 7) is 1.48%, in group 8 is 0.06% etc. This matrix,
             normalised to 1, gives the relative probability of each neutron
             group: but the actual probability PER COLLISION must be obtained
             by multiplying by PNABS, the scattering cross section divided by
             the total cross section and multiplied by the average number of
             neutrons per non absorption reaction.

           - neutron-to-gamma group transfer probabilities, for instance:

     1           NEUTRON TO GAMMA TRANSFERS FOR MEDIA     6
      NEUT GROUP     GAMGEN       TRANSFER PROBABILITIES
              1     1.7749E+00     0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0003  0.0002  0.0004
                                   0.0008  0.0015  0.0027  0.0048  0.0084  0.0144
                                   0.0239  0.0378  0.0686  0.0942  0.0967  0.1125
                                   0.2830  0.1249  0.0625  0.0625
            ..............................................................

             The meaning is similar to that explained above, except that each
             number refers to the probability of getting a gamma in the
             corresponding gamma group. Again, this matrix, normalised to 1,
             gives the relative probability of each gamma group: but the actual
             probability PER COLLISION must be obtained by multiplying by
             GAMGEN, the gamma production cross section divided by the total
             cross section and multiplied by the average number of gammas per
             (n,gamma) reaction

      WHAT(4) = 3.: the same as above plus:
         for each material used and for each neutron energy group:
             Cumulative scattering probabilities and scattering polar angle
             cosines as in the following example:

              1 SCATTERING PROBABILITIES AND ANGLES FOR MEDIA NUMBER     4
                GP TO GP   PROB   ANGLE    PROB   ANGLE    PROB   ANGLE
             .............................................................
                6     6  0.8736  0.9557  0.9823  0.3741  1.0000 -0.6421
                6     7  0.4105  0.8383  0.8199  0.1057  1.0000 -0.7588
                6     8  0.4444  0.0001  0.7223  0.7747  1.0000 -0.7746
                6     9  0.4444 -0.0001  0.7223 -0.7746  1.0000  0.7746
                6    10  0.4444  0.0000  0.7223 -0.7746  1.0000  0.7746
                6    11 -1.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
                6    12 -1.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
                6    13 -1.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
             .............................................................

             The above table reports 3 discrete angle cosines (corresponding to
             a Legendre P5 expansion) for each group-to-group scattering
             combination, with the respective cumulative probabilities. For
             instance, the line:
                6     7  0.4105  0.8383  0.8199  0.1057  1.0000 -0.7588
             means that neutron scattering from energy group 6 to group 7
             has a 0.4105 probability to be at a polar angle of 33 degrees
             (0.8383 = cos(33deg)); a probability (0.8199 - 0.4105) = 0.4094 to
             be at 84 degrees = acos(0.1057); and a probability
             (1.000 - 0.8199) = 0.1801 to be at 139 degrees = acos(-0.7588).
             A -1.0000 probability indicates an isotropic distribution.

  • Table of available particle types

This table presents constant properties of all particles transported by FLUKA (name, id number, rest mass and charge), plus two columns indicating:

  • the particles which are discarded, by default (neutrinos) or on user's request (option DISCARD)
  • the particle decay flag (see option PHYSICS, with SDUM = DECAYS)

The available generalised particles and their id are also listed.

  • An expanded summary of the input:

This part of output summarises the most important input data, decoded and presented in a more colloquial way.

     a. Beam properties:
          Information given by BEAM and BEAMPOS option: type of particle,
          energy/momentum, direction, etc. If a user SOURCE is used, it is
          indicated here
     b. Energy thresholds:
          Particle cutoff energies of hadrons and muons as set by default or by
          option PART-THR. Neutron cutoff means the threshold between high
          and low-energy (multi-group) neutron treatment. Low-energy neutron
          group cutoffs are reported by region in a separate table
          (see f. below). Electron and photon cutoffs are also reported in a
          separate table (see p. below).
     c. Ending conditions
          The maximum number of histories and stars and other ending options
          set in card START are summarised here
     d. Multiple scattering (hadrons and muons):
          There is a statement about a Coulomb scattering approximation level,
          but only for historical reasons. Presently only level 1 is available.
          The logical flags which follow are related to option MULSOPT with
          SDUM = GLOBAL or GLOBHAD. The number of single scatterings to be
          performed at boundary crossing is also printed.
     e. Treatment of electrons and photons, including multiple scattering
          For historical reasons dating from the time when FLUKA was handling
          only high-energy particles, this title of this part is
          "Electromagnetic Cascades".
          The logical flags which follow are related to option MULSOPT with
          SDUM = GLOBAL or GLOBEMF. The number of single scatterings to be
          performed at boundary crossing is also printed.
     f. Biasing parameters
          This table reports several region-dependent biasing and cutoff
          parameters:
            - Particle importances (set with WHAT(1) and WHAT(3) of option
              BIASING)
            - Russian Roulette factor (multiplicity biasing set with WHAT(2) of
              option BIASING)
            - Cutoff group (WHAT(1) of option LOW-BIAS)
            - Group limit for non-analogue absorption (WHAT(1) of option LOW-BIAS)
            - Non-analogue survival probability (WHAT(3) of option LOW-BIAS)
            - Group limit for biased downscattering (WHAT(1) of option LOW-DOWN)
            - Biasing downscattering factor (WHAT(2) of option LOW-DOWN)
     g. Estimators requested
          For each requested estimator (USRBIN, USRBDX, USRCOLL, USRTRACK,
          USRYIELD, RESNUCLEi, DETECT), a complete description is printed
          (detector number, particle type, defining region(s) or binning
          limits, number of intervals/bins, area/volume, linear/logarithmic,
          type of quantity etc.). If the estimator output file is formatted, the
          same information is printed also there in an identical format,
          otherwise it is available on the corresponding unformatted file.
          Note that the estimator detectors are numbered separately according to
          their estimator type (Bdrx n. 1, Bdrx n. 2 etc.; Binning n. 1,
          Binning n. 2 etc. - independent from the type of binning - Track n. 1,
          Track n. 2 etc.), in the order they appear in input. The estimator type
          and the detector number can be passed (as variables ISCRNG and JSCRNG
          in COMMON SCOHLP) to the user routines COMSCW and FLUSCW, to allow
          different kinds of weighting on the scored quantities, depending on the
          detector number (see (13))
     h. Materials defined and pre-defined
          This table includes all materials pre-defined and not overridden
          by the user, plus those defined in the user input via options
          MATERIAL and COMPOUND, independent from the fact that they have been
          assigned or not to any region.
          The different columns report the material number, name, atomic number Z
          and atomic weight A (effective Z, A for compounds), density, inelastic
          and elastic scattering lengths for the primary particles at the
          energy defined by option BEAM (meaningful only for primary hadrons),
          radiation length (value not used by the program) and inelastic
          scattering length for neutrons at the threshold momentum for
          transition to the group treatment (by default 20 MeV unless
          overridden by PART-THR).
          For compounds, an insert is printed with the element composition, plus
          the atom fraction and partial density of each component.
     i. dE/dx tabulations (if requested, see DELTARAY)
          For each assigned material and for each charged heavy particle
          (hadrons, muons, recoil ions) a table is printed with the following
          data:
           energy, unrestricted stopping power, eta (= beta * gamma), shell
           correction, restricted stopping power (according to the threshold
           specified by the user with DELTARAY, WHAT(1)).
     j. Other stopping power information
          The following is printed for each material used:
          gas pressure (if applicable), average excitation energy, effective
          Z/A, Sternheimer density effect parameters, delta ray production,
          threshold, description level for stopping power fluctuations
          description level (set with IONFLUCT, WHAT(1) and WHAT(3)),and
          threshold for pair production and bremsstrahlung by heavy particles
          (set with PAIRBREM).
     k. Photonuclear reaction requests
          A line of information is printed for each material in which muon
          photonuclear interactions have been activated (see MUPHOTON). A
          similar information is printed for gamma photonuclear interactions,
          with the PHOTONUC flag for the relevant energy ranges.
     l. Table of correspondence between materials and regions
          This table corresponds to the ASSIGNMAt command and may be useful to
          check the material assignment to the various regions, as well as
          the regions where a magnetic field is present. The minimum step size
          set with option STEPSIZE is also reported. The last column refers to
          a maximum step size which has not yet been implemented.
     m. Rayleigh scattering requests
          A line of information is printed for each material in which Rayleigh
          scattering has been activated (option EMFRAY).
     n. Fluorescence requests
          For each material for which fluorescence X-ray production has been
          requested, information about the relevant photoelectric cross
          section edges is reported (option EMFFLUO).
     o. Table of correspondence between regions and EMF materials/biasing
          For each assigned material, this table reports the name, number
          (the internal numbering sequence is different in the EMF part of
          FLUKA), electron and photon energy cutoffs (set with EMFCUT), and
          four logical flags indicating whether some options have ben activated
          for the material concerned (T means on, F off). The meaning of the
          flags is:
           BIAS   --> Leading Particle Biasing (LPB) (set by EMF-BIAS or EMFCUT)
           Ray.   --> Rayleigh scattering (set by EMFRAY with WHAT(1) = 1., 2.,
           4. or 5.)
           S(q,Z) --> Compton binding corrections (EMFRAY with WHAT(1) = 1., 3.,
           4. or 6.)
           Pz(q,Z) --> Compton Doppler broadening (EMFRAY with WHAT(1) = 4.
           or 6.)
           The energy thresholds below which LPB is played for electrons and
           photons (WHAT(2) and WHAT(3) of EMF-BIAS) are also reported, and so
           is the LPB bit-code for selected effects (WHAT(1) of EMF-BIAS)

  • Random number generator calls and CPU time for some histories

During the calculation, a couple of lines is printed time and again after a certain number of histories (or after each history, depending on WHAT(5) of option START). [Occasional warning messages printed during particle transport are found between the lines, especially if photonuclear reactions have been activated: they have mainly a temporary debugging purpose and should be ignored]. One of the two lines contains the number of random number generator calls, expressed as two integers I1, I2 in hexadecimal format (2Z8). The actual number of calls is equal to I2*1.E9 + I1. The second line reports, in the following order: the number of primary particles handled, the number of particles still to be handled (with respect to the maximum requested by WHAT(1) of START), the number of particles which can still be handled judging from the average time spent so far, the average time per primary based on the histories already completed, and the estimated time still available with respect to WHAT(3) of START. The sequence of random number call lines is terminated by a message (FEEDER is the FLUKA routine which starts every history):

              "All cases handled by feeder" if the whole number of particles
                  requested in START has been completed
              "Run termination forced from outside" if the run has been
                  shortened by the FLUKA "stop file"
              "Feeder ended due to timeout" if the time limit has been reached
                  - see WHAT(6) of START or system-imposed time limit

  • Results of SCORE option for all regions

Up to 4 different quantities (energy or star density) are printed at one line per region. The volume used for normalisation is also printed (equal to 1.0 unless a different value has been input by the user at the end of the geometry description). Even if SCORE has not been requested a line of zeros is printed for each region.

  • Statistics of Coulomb scattering

The number of scatterings which were not performed or were performed without LDA (Lateral Displacement Algorithm) because they failed to satisfy Molière's conditions is reported here. This number is usually very small compared to the total number of scatterings, also reported. If single scatterings have been activated, their number is also printed.

  • Russian Roulette/Splitting counters (if requested, see BIASING)

If the BIASING option has been used with SDUM = PRINT, the following statistics is printed for each region:

      "N. of RR"   --> Number of Russian Roulette operations made on particles
                       ENTERING that region
      "<Wt>  in"   --> Average weight of particles submitted to Russian Roulette
                       when entering the region
      "<Wt> kil"   --> Average weight of particles killed after being submitted
                       to Russian Roulette when entering the region
      "N. of Sp"   --> Number of splitting operations made on particles ENTERING
                       the region
      "<Wt>  in"   --> Average weight of particles submitted to splitting when
                       entering the region
      "<Wt> out"   --> Average weight of particles after being submitted to
                       splitting when entering the region

Separate counters are printed for hadrons/muons, electrons/photons and low-energy neutrons (referring to importance biasing requested by BIASING respectively with WHAT(1) = 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0, or = 0.0 for all). The number of RR actually refers to äll particles which have not been splitted" (a particle crossing a boundary between two regions of equal importance is submitted neither to RR nor to splitting, but is counted as if it was a RR). Therefore, the counters can be used to calculate the following quantities, useful as a guide to set importances and weight windows:

       A = "N. of RR" + "N. of Sp" = total number of particles entering the region
       B = ("<Wt> in"_RR * "N. of RR") + ("<Wt> in"_Sp * "N. of Sp") = total
           weight of the particles entering the region
       B/A = average weight of the particles entering the region

Note that RR and splitting arising from Weight-Window biasing (options WW-FACTOR, WW-THRESh, WW-PROFI) or from multiplicity biasing (WHAT(2) in option BIASING) are not accounted for in the counters.

  • Final global statistics

At the end of a successful run, after a title:

                 "STATISTICS OF THE RUN"

the following are printed:

  • Total number of primary particles
  • Total weight of the primary particles (can be different from the previous one, especially if a user source has been used)
  • Total number of stars (hadron inelastic collisions) generated
  • Total weight of the stars generated
         Note: this statistics includes ALL hadron inelastic collisions,
               independent from any threshold set by option THRESHOLd.
               Therefore, this number of stars can be different from that
               obtained with SCORE or USRBIN.
  • Total number of low energy neutron interactions
  • Total weight of the low energy neutron interactions
  • Total CPU time used to describe all the histories
  • Average CPU time per history
  • Maximum CPU time used by a history
  • Time left before time limit (if applicable)

A more detailed statistics of different quantities follows, including all regions. The contribution of each type of particle is given, normalised per unit weight of beam/source particles and also in percent of the total.

  • Stars (inelastic hadron interactions)
  • Secondaries created in inelastic hadron interactions
  • High-energy fissions
  • Decay products
  • Decayed particles

For each particle the decay length at the decay position is also reported (decay length = c * tau, with tau = mean life)

  • Particles reaching cutoff energy
  • Secondaries created in low-energy neutron interactions

Energy balance. Each main output ends with a global energy budget. The user should always check it to make sure that the calculation is not affected by any unphysical effect or mistake. The budget entries are:

  • Total energy "deposited" per unit weight of beam/source particle

"Deposited" means actually äccounted for". This value should normally be equal to the average energy of the primary particles, except in the case of abnormal termination before the end of the first history.

  • Energy deposited by by ionisation

This is energy deposited by continuous losses of heavy charged particles (hadron, muon and ion stopping power). Note that it depends on several user choices:

           => the thresholds set for delta ray production (energy
              transferred to electrons is accounted for in the next entry)
           => the transport thresholds (energy of stopping particles is
              counted in a separate entry below)
           => transport of light ion recoils (if not transported, their
              energy is deposited at the point of production and is
              recorded under a separate entry)
  • Energy deposited by electrons and positrons

For historical reasons this is labelled as "by em-cascade". It may depend on delta ray thresholds (see above)

  • Energy deposited by nuclear recoils and heavy fragments

This includes only ions which have not been transported

  • Energy of particles below threshold
  • Residual excitation energy

This is excitation energy of nucleus which is left after evaporation and not emitted as prompt gamma de-excitation (e.g. radioactive decay energy)

  • Energy deposited by low energy neutrons

This energy is deposited as kerma at the point of collision. It does not include the energy of hydrogen proton recoils and that of protons from the 14N(n,p)14C reaction. These protons are transported explicitly and their energy losses are accounted for as ionisation losses.

  • Escaping the system

More generally, energy entering the blackhole, whether in the external region or in other blackhole regions defined by the user

  • Energy of discarded particles

(Remember that neutrinos are always discarded by default)

  • Energy of particles out of time limit

Can be different from zero only if the TIME-CUT option has been chosen for at least one type of particles

  • Missing energy

This entry is calculated as the difference between the total energy and the sum of all the other entries. While it is usually extremely small in pure electromagnetic problems, it can take substantial values (positive or negative) in problems involving nuclear reactions. It is usually positive, since most nuclear reactions are endothermic (very roughly, about 8 MeV are spent to produce each secondary nucleon). However, most low energy neutron capture reactions are exothermic, and several MeV per capture are emitted as gamma rays. In problems with fissile materials such as 235U, the "missing" energy can reach very large negative values.

Note that a similar, but more detailed energy balance can be obtained event by event with option EVENTDAT. See description below.

  • Maximum size of the particle stack

The last line of information concerns the maximum number of particles that have been loaded in stack at any time. It is of little interest to most users.

9.2 Scratch file

The scratch file used by FLUKA is of little importance for most users, and actually is deleted automatically by the rfluka script at the end of a successful run. It is mentioned here only for the sake of completeness.

The file, written on output unit LUNGEO (usually 16) is a simple echo of the Combinatorial Geometry input, in a different format. At input time, FLUKA stores temporarily the geometry data on this file and calculates the length of the various geometry arrays, which must include also additional information (e.g. the DNEAR value for each body). Then the data are retrieved and the final memory allocation takes place.

9.3 Random number seeds

A file of 97 seeds for the random number generator is written on output unit LUNRAN (usually 2) at the end of each run. The file, which can be read in the next run on an input unit defined by the user with option RANDOMIZe, is written in hexadecimal format. The first line (which is also printed on standard output at the beginning of the calculation) contains the total number of generator calls corresponding to the present file, expressed as two integers I1, I2 in hexadecimal format (2Z8). The actual number of calls is equal to I2*1.E9 + I1. If the difference between the number of calls in two such files is sufficiently large, the two files can be reasonably expected to produce statistically independent runs.

9.4 Error messages

Most error messages are written on output unit LUNERR (usually 15), interspersed with lines giving the number of random number generator calls identical to those printed on standard output. (This file has generally extension .err). Each error message begins with the name of the routine in which it is originated. Some messages, however (especially if fatal) are printed on standard output.

Many error messages (often somewhat cryptic) are printed only for debugging or information purposes and should be of concern to the user unless there is a large number of them: for instance when one of the hadronic event generators fails to conserve some quantity within the strict limits imposed. Examples:

    Eventq: charge/baryon conservation failure with Nucrin 5 4 11 10
    Eventv: ekin+am < pla,ij,igreyt  4.93747684  4.94905223 14 1

The following type of message is also not important, and is especially frequent in runs with photonuclear reactions activated:

    *** Umfnst: eexany,eexdel,eexmin,amepar,enenew,np,ikpmx,eexnew,eexmax  0.
        0.002  0.004319  1.11498839  1.09082268 2 0  0.  0.0171591096

Another type of informative message, indicating that a step counter has been reset because it was approaching the upper limit for an integer, is the following:

    *** Emfgeo: Ncoun 2000000000

Generally, messages issued by the geometry routines are more important. However, fatal ones are written to standard output, for instance:

    EXIT BEING CALLED FROM G1, NEXT REGION NOT FOUND

In such cases, it is recommended to run the geometry debugger (see command GEOEND) to find and correct the error.

The following one indicates a real problem if repeated more than a few times:

  GEOFAR, TXYZ:  1. -0.0721463599 -0.409276348 -0.909553612
     Nfrom, Nreg, X, Y, Z 1001 3 -0.108787724 -1.26878781  8.78769155

 Geofar: Particle in region   3 (cell #    0) in position  1.000000000E+00
 0.000000000E+00  1.000000000E+00
  is now causing trouble, requesting a step of  6.258867675E-07 cm
  to direction -2.285059979E-01 -9.412338141E-01  2.487245789E-01, error count: 0
  [...skipped...]
  Particle index    3 total energy   5.189748600E-04 GeV  Nsurf    0
 We succeeded in saving the particle:  current region is n.     2 (cell #    0)

As it can be seen, the program has some difficulty to track a particle in a certain direction, and it tries to fix the problem by "nudging" the particle by a small amount, in case the problem is due to a rounding error near a boundary. If the message appears often, it is recommended to run the geometry debugger centreing around the position reported in order to find if there is an error in the geometry description.

Other geometry errors concern particles with direction cosines not properly normalised. This happens often with user routines where the user has forgotten to check that the sum of the squares be = 1.0D0 IN DOUBLE PRECISION. For instance, the following message is generally caused by an inaccurate MAGFLD user routine:

    MAGNEW, TXYZ: ...[sum of the squares]... U,V,V: ...[3 cosines]...

A similar message may be issued by the tracking routine GEOFAR:

    GEOFAR, TXYZ: ...[sum of the squares]... U,V,V: ...[3 cosines]...
    Nfrom, Nreg, X, Y, Z' ...[calling code, region number, particle position]...

Another geometry error message is the following:

                 ****************************************
                        GEOMETRY SEARCH ARRAY FULL
                 ****************************************

This message indicates that insufficient memory has been allocated for the "contiguity list" (list of zones contiguous to each zone). This is not an actual error, but it is suggested that the user could optimise computer time by increasing the values of the NAZ variable in the geometry region specifications.

9.5 Estimator output

Most estimator results can be printed either as unformatted files or as formatted (ASCII) text, on logical output units chosen by the user. The only exception is DETECT, for which only the unformatted option is available, and for which the output unit number cannot be chosen (it is always 17). If the formatted option is chosen, it is possible to write the estimator output as part of the main output (logical output unit 11). It is also possible to write the results of more than one estimator on the same file. However, the task of post-processing analysis programs is easier if estimators of a different kind (e.g. USRBIN and USRBDX), or even with a different structure (e.g. two USRBINs wit a different number of bins), have their outputs directed to separate files. All the formatted estimator outputs follow the same pattern:

  • The title of the run (as given in input with option TITLE).
  • Date and time
  • Total number of particles followed, and their total weight. (Note that the number of particles is written in format I7, that may be insufficient for very large runs. In this case the value will be replaced by a line of asterisks)


9.5.1 DETECT output

ETECT output|DETECT output|95|9| -->

Option DETECT produces only unformatted output (see DETECT description for instructions on how to read it). As for all other estimators, a complete description in clear of the requested scoring is printed on the standard output. For instance:

   Detector n.   1  "COINC     " , Ecutoff = 3.142E-07 GeV
    1024 energy bins 2.717E-03 GeV wide, from 3.700E-03 to 2.786E+00 GeV
      energy deposition in   1 regions, (n.:   3)
          in coincidence with
      energy deposition in   1 regions, (n.:   4)

    Detector n.   2  "ANTICOINC " , Ecutoff = 6.614E-06 GeV
    1024 energy bins 6.704E-03 GeV wide, from 7.300E-03 to 6.872E+00 GeV
      energy deposition in   1 regions, (n.:   4)
          in anti-coincidence with
      energy deposition in   1 regions, (n.:   3)


9.5.2 EVENTBIN output

VENTBIN output|EVENTBIN output|95|9| -->

Option EVENTBIN produces either unformatted or formatted output. The formatted output is seldom used because of its size (the binning results, similar to those produced by option USRBIN, are printed after each primary event). As for most other estimators, a complete description in clear of the requested scoring is printed also on the standard output. For instance:

   Cartesian binning n.   1  "Eventscore" , generalised particle n.  208
      X coordinate: from -1.5000E+02 to  1.5000E+02 cm,    75 bins ( 4.0000E+00 cm wide)
      Y coordinate: from  1.0000E+02 to  2.0000E+02 cm,    50 bins ( 2.0000E+00 cm wide)
      Z coordinate: from -2.0000E+01 to  1.8000E+02 cm,    20 bins ( 1.0000E+01 cm wide)
      data will be printed on unit   21 (unformatted if < 0)
      accurate deposition along the tracks requested
      unnormalised data will be printed event by event

The header of the formatted output is practically identical to that of USRBIN, except for the words "event by event" printed after the total number of particles:

  *****  Title (as provided by input command TITLE)                                        *****

            DATE:  1/ 5/ 5,  TIME:  8:39:44

           Total number of particles to be followed    8000, event by event

 1
    Cartesian binning n.   1  "Eventscore" , generalised particle n.  208
       X coordinate: from -1.5000E+02 to  1.5000E+02 cm,    75 bins ( 4.0000E+00 cm wide)
       Y coordinate: from  1.0000E+02 to  2.0000E+02 cm,    50 bins ( 2.0000E+00 cm wide)
       Z coordinate: from -2.0000E+01 to  1.8000E+02 cm,    20 bins ( 1.0000E+01 cm wide)
       Data follow in a matrix A(ix,iy,iz), format (1(5x,1p,10(1x,e11.4)))

       accurate deposition along the tracks requested

The binning matrix is then printed once for each event (8000 times in the above example), every time preceded by a line:

   Binning n:    1, "Eventscore",  Event #:     1, Primary(s) weight  1.0000E+00
 ................................................................................
   Binning n:    1, "Eventscore",  Event #:  8000, Primary(s) weight  1.0000E+00

As for most other estimators, the matrix is easily read and manipulated by a simple program, using the format reported in the header.


9.5.3 EVENTDAT output

VENTDAT output|EVENTDAT output|95|9| -->

Option EVENTDAT produces either unformatted or formatted output (see EVENTDAT description for instructions on how to read an unformatted output). Unlike other estimators, no information is printed on standard output.

The formatted output begins with run title and run time, followed by a short information about:

  • Number of regions
  • Number of generalised particle distributions requested

Then, for each primary history:

  • History number
  • Primary weight
  • Primary energy
  • Total energy balance for the current history, made of 12 contributions. Some of them correspond to those found in the final balance printed at the end of the standard output, but in this case no normalisation to the primary weight is made. Note that some of the contributions are meaningful only in specific contexts (e.g. if low-energy neutron transport has been requested). No explanation is given about the meaning of each contribution, which must be found here below in the order they are printed:
      1  = energy deposited by ionisation
      2  = en. depos. by pi0, electrons, positrons and photons
      3  = en. depos. by nuclear recoils and heavy fragments
      4  = energy deposited by particles below threshold
      5  = energy leaving the system
      6  = energy carried by discarded particles
      7  = residual excitation energy after evaporation
      8  = energy deposited by low-energy neutrons (kerma)
      9  = energy of particles out of the time limit
      10 = energy lost in endothermic nuclear reactions above 50 MeV
      11 = energy lost in endothermic low-energy neutron reactions
      12 = missing energy
    - Energy or stars (depending on the generalised particle scoring
      distribution) deposited or produced in each region during the
      current history
    - Random number generator information to be read in order to
      reproduce the current sequence (skipping calls).

 Example:

   **** Event-Data ****
  Energy deposition by protons in PbWO4
  DATE:  1/ 5/ 5,  TIME: 17:42:33
   No. of regions. 3  No. of distr. scored 1

   Event # 1
   Primary Weight  1.  Primary Energy  2. GeV
       Contributions to the energy deposition
      (GeV not normalised to the weight):
  0.519268453  0.963951886  0.183623865  0.  0.  0.0999941751  0.  0.0797502846
  0.  0.  0.  0.153411314
      Generalised scoring distribution # 208
      from first to last region:
  0.  0.109102778  1.6374917
   Seeds after event # 1
 ***  FADB81       0       0       0       0       0 33B49B1       0       0       0***

   Event # 2
   Primary Weight  1.  Primary Energy  2. GeV
       Contributions to the energy deposition
      (GeV not normalised to the weight):
  1.04533529  0.827161014  0.00902671926  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.0179061908  0.  0.
  0.  0.100570783
      Generalised scoring distribution # 208
      from first to last region:
  0.  0.00186400011  1.89756525
   Seeds after event # 2
 *** 1034722       0       0       0       0       0 33B49B1       0       0       0***
 ......................................................................................


9.5.4 RESNUCLE output

ESNUCLE output|RESNUCLE output|95|9| -->

Option RESNUCLE produces either formatted or unformatted output (for the latter, see RESNUCLE description for instructions on how to read it). The formatted output begins with the run title and run time, followed by a short information about:

  • 1) Total number of primary particles followed
  • 2) Total weight of the primaries
  • 3) Number and name of the residual nuclei detector, type of reactions considered (high energy or low energy only, or all), region number
  • 4) Detector volume in cm3
  • 5) Range of Z and N-Z printed
  • 6) Tabulation format

The information reported in 3), 4) and 5) is printed also in the expanded input summary on main output. For instance:

     Res. nuclei n.   1  "Pb-Region " , "high" energy products, region n.     3
        detector volume:  1.0000E+00 cm**3
        Max. Z:  86, Max. N-Z:  49 Min. N-Z: -4
        data will be printed on unit   21 (unformatted if < 0)

On the formatted RESNUCLE output, the above text is followed by one additional line explaining how to read the result matrix which follows:

      Data follow in a matrix A(z,n-z-k), k: -5 format (1(5x,1p,10(1x,e11.4)))

Here is an example of a simple program which can be used to display the same results in a more plain way:

      PROGRAM READRN
      CHARACTER*125 LINE, FILINP, FILOUT
      PARAMETER (MAXZ = 86, MINNMZ = -4, MAXNMZ = 49, K = -5)
      DIMENSION RESULT(MAXZ, MINNMZ-K:MAXNMZ-K)

      WRITE(*,*) "Filename?"
      READ(*,'(A)') FILINP
      OPEN(UNIT=1, FILE=FILINP, STATUS='OLD')
      LQ = INDEX(FILINP,' ') - 1
      FILOUT = FILINP(1:LQ)//'.rn'
      OPEN(UNIT=2, FILE=FILOUT, STATUS='UNKNOWN')

      DO 1 I = 1, 14
         READ(1,'(A)') LINE    !  skip header lines
  1   CONTINUE

      READ(1,100,END=4) RESULT
  4   CONTINUE

      WRITE(2,'(A)')   '   Z   A    Residual nuclei'
      WRITE(2,'(A,/)') '         per cm**3 per primary'
      DO 2 I = 1, MAXZ
         DO 3 J = MINNMZ-K, MAXNMZ-K
            IF(RESULT(I,J) .GT. 0.D0)
     &       WRITE(2,'(2I4,1P, G15.6)') I, J+K+2*I, RESULT(I,J)
  3      CONTINUE
  2   CONTINUE
 100  FORMAT(1(5X,1P,10(1X,E11.4)))
      END



9.5.5 USRBDX output

SRBDX output|USRBDX output|95|9| -->

Option USRBDX produces either formatted or unformatted output (for the latter, see USRBDX description for instructions on how to read it). As for most other estimators, a complete description in clear of the requested scoring is printed also on the standard output. For instance:

   Bdrx n.   1  "bxlogchb  " , generalised particle n.  202, from region n.     5 to region n.     6
      detector area:  6.3664E+01 cm**2
      this is a two ways estimator
      this is a fluence like estimator
      logar. energy binning from  1.0000E-11 to  3.0000E+00 GeV,   200 bins (ratio : 1.1413E+00)
      linear angular binning from  0.0000E+00 to  1.2566E+01 sr ,     1 bins ( 1.2566E+01 sr wide )
      data will be printed on unit  -25 (unformatted if < 0)

After the title and date, and one line reporting the total number of particles and their weight, the header of the formatted output is very similar to the above text:

  *****  Test boundary crossing estimator                                                  *****

            DATE: 10/25/ 4,  TIME: 10:32:59

           Total number of particles followed   10000, for a total weight of  1.0000E+04

 1

    Bdrx n.   5  "bxlogchf  " , generalised particle n.  202, from region n.     5 to region n.     6
       detector area:  6.3664E+01 cm**2
       this is a two ways estimator
       this is a fluence like estimator
       logar. energy binning from  1.0000E-11 to  3.0000E+00 GeV,   200 bins (ratio : 1.1413E+00)
       linear angular binning from  0.0000E+00 to  1.2566E+01 sr ,     1 bins ( 1.2566E+01 sr wide )
       Data follow in a matrix A(ie,ia), format (1(5x,1p,10(1x,e11.4)))

As for most other estimators, the matrix is easily read and manipulated by a simple program, using the format reported in the header. It can also be cut and pasted into a spreadsheet.


9.5.6 USRBIN output

SRBIN output|USRBIN output|95|9| -->

Option USRBIN produces either formatted or unformatted output (for the latter, see USRBIN description for instructions on how to read it). As for most other estimators, a complete description in clear of the requested scoring is printed also on the standard output. For instance:

    Cartesian binning n.   1  "Cufront   " , generalised particle n.  208
       X coordinate: from -2.1100E-01 to  5.5910E+00 cm,    58 bins ( 1.0003E-01 cm wide)
       Y coordinate: from  0.0000E+00 to  5.4010E+00 cm,    53 bins ( 1.0191E-01 cm wide)
       Z coordinate: from  0.0000E+00 to -1.0000E-03 cm,     1 bins (-1.0000E-03 cm wide)
       data will be printed on unit   21 (unformatted if < 0)
       +/- Y symmetry requested and implemented
       accurate deposition along the tracks requested
       normalised (per unit volume) data will be printed at the end of the run

After the title and date, and one line reporting the total number of particles and their weight, the header of the formatted output is very similar to the above text:

  *****  Roman Pot: box with windows                                                       *****

            DATE: 12/ 8/ 3,  TIME: 15:57:27

           Total number of particles followed   30000, for a total weight of  3.0000E+04

 1
    Cartesian binning n.   1  "Cufront   " , generalised particle n.  208
       X coordinate: from -2.1100E-01 to  5.5910E+00 cm,    58 bins ( 1.0003E-01 cm wide)
       Y coordinate: from  0.0000E+00 to  5.4010E+00 cm,    53 bins ( 1.0191E-01 cm wide)
       Z coordinate: from  0.0000E+00 to -1.0000E-03 cm,     1 bins (-1.0000E-03 cm wide)
       Data follow in a matrix A(ix,iy,iz), format (1(5x,1p,10(1x,e11.4)))

       +/- Y symmetry requested and implemented
       accurate deposition along the tracks requested

As for most other estimators, the matrix is easily read and manipulated by a simple program, using the format reported in the header. It can also be cut and pasted into a spreadsheet.


9.5.7 USRCOLL output

SRCOLL output|USRCOLL output|95|9| -->

Option USRCOLL produces either formatted or unformatted output (for the latter, see USRTRACK description for instructions on how to read it - the two options produce output with identical format).

As for most other estimators, a complete description in clear of the requested scoring is printed also on the standard output. For instance:

    Coll  n.   1  "collogchf " , generalised particle n.  202, region n.     6
       detector volume:  4.0000E+01 cm**3
       Warning! Collision estimators not implemented for electrons/positrons and photons
       logar. energy binning from  1.0000E-11 to  1.0000E+00 GeV,  1000 bins (ratio : 1.0257E+00)
       data will be printed on unit   24 (unformatted if < 0)

After the title and date, and one line reporting the total number of particles and their weight, the header of the formatted output is very similar to the above text:

  *****  Test collision estimator                                                          *****

            DATE:  1/ 5/ 5,  TIME: 18:32:28

           Total number of particles followed  100000, for a total weight of  1.0000E+05

 1

    Coll  n.   1  "collogchf  " , generalised particle n.  202, region n.     6
       detector volume:  4.0000E+01 cm**3
       logar. energy binning from  1.0000E-11 to  1.0000E+00 GeV,  1000 bins (ratio : 1.0257E+00)
       Data follow in a vector A(ie), format (1(5x,1p,10(1x,e11.4)))

As for most other estimators, the matrix is easily read and manipulated by a simple program, using the format reported in the header. It can also be cut and pasted into a spreadsheet.


9.5.8 USRTRACK output

SRTRACK output|USRTRACK output|95|9| -->

Option USRTRACK produces either formatted or unformatted output (for the latter, see USRTRACK description for instructions on how to read it).

As for most other estimators, a complete description in clear of the requested scoring is printed also on the standard output. For instance:

    Track n.   1  "tklogchb  " , generalised particle n.  202, region n.     6
       detector volume:  4.0000E+01 cm**3
       logar. energy binning from  1.0000E-11 to  1.0000E+00 GeV,  1000 bins (ratio : 1.0257E+00)
       data will be printed on unit  -23 (unformatted if < 0)

After the title and date, and one line reporting the total number of particles and their weight, the header of the formatted output is very similar to the above text:

  *****  Test tracklength/coll. reading program for the manual                             *****

            DATE: 10/25/ 4,  TIME: 10:32:59

           Total number of particles followed   10000, for a total weight of  1.0000E+04

 1

    Track n.   5  "tklogchf  " , generalised particle n.  202, region n.     6
       detector volume:  4.0000E+01 cm**3
       logar. energy binning from  1.0000E-11 to  1.0000E+00 GeV,  1000 bins (ratio : 1.0257E+00)
       Data follow in a vector A(ie), format (1(5x,1p,10(1x,e11.4)))

As for most other estimators, the matrix is easily read and manipulated by a simple program, using the format reported in the header. It can also be cut and pasted into a spreadsheet.


9.5.9 USRYIELD output

SRYIELD output|USRYIELD output|95|9| -->

Option USRYIELD produces either formatted or unformatted output (for the latter, see USRYIELD description for instructions on how to read it).

As for most other estimators, a complete description in clear of the requested scoring is printed also on the standard output. For instance:

    Yield n.   1  "TotPi+(E) " , generalised particle n.   13, from region n.     3 to region n.     2
       user normalisation:  1.0000E+00, adopted cross section (if any):  1.0000E+00 mb
       logar. 1st variable binning from  1.0000E-03 to  5.0000E+01   100 bins (ratio : 1.1143E+00)
       2nd variable ranges from   0.0000E+00 to  3.1416E+00
       1st variable is: Laboratory Kinetic Energy
       2nd variable is: Laboratory Angle (radians)
       data will be printed on unit   21 (unformatted if < 0)

After the title and date, and one line reporting the total number of particles and their weight, the header of the formatted output is very similar to the above text:

  *****  Yield calculation                                                                 *****

            DATE:  1/ 5/ 5,  TIME: 18:54:19

           Total number of particles followed      10, for a total weight of  1.0000E+01

 1

    Yield n.   1  "TotPi+(E) " , generalised particle n.   13, from region n.     3 to region n.     2
       user normalisation:  1.0000E+00, adopted cross section (if any):  1.0000E+00 mb
       logar. 1st variable binning from  1.0000E-03 to  5.0000E+01   100 bins (ratio : 1.1143E+00)
       2nd variable ranges from   0.0000E+00 to  3.1416E+00
       1st variable is: Laboratory Kinetic Energy
       2nd variable is: Laboratory Angle (radians)
       Data follow in a vector A(ie), format (1(5x,1p,10(1x,e11.4)))

As for most other estimators, the matrix is easily read and manipulated by a simple program, using the format reported in the header. It can also be cut and pasted into a spreadsheet.

9.6 USERDUMP output

SERDUMP output|USERDUMP output|95|9| -->

As a default, no formatted output is available for the USERDUMP option. A description of the unformatted collision file is given in (11). However, the user can modify the MGDRAW user routine as described in (13), to obtain any desired output of selected events in the preferred format.

9.7 RAY output

Tracking RAY pseudoparticles (see (14)) produces only an unformatted file. No formatted output is available.

9.8 User-generated output

Users can generate their own output in any user routine. However, one special routine, USROUT, has been designed for this purpose. It is called on request by command USROCALL, usually at the end of the run, after command START. The desired output can be printed on the standard output file (logical unit LUNOUT), or on one or more separate files. These can be opened explicitly with a normal Fortran OPEN statement or with a FLUKA OPEN command. Otherwise, any WRITE(xx,...) statement will cause a file to be opened by default with a name fort.xx, where xx is a logical unit number. In any case, it is important that the logical unit numbers be < 21 (unit numbers up to 20 are internally reserved for FLUKA).

© FLUKA Team 2000–2021

Informativa cookies