Re: your mail

From: Alfredo Ferrari (
Date: Sun Mar 02 2003 - 17:40:56 CET

Dear John

for pion/kaon etc production in Fluka we use different approaches which
can be hardly be squeezed into some simple maths. A general description
as well as many references can be found in

A.Ferrari, and P.R.Sala, ``The Physics of High Energy Reactions",
lecture given at the ``Workshop on Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear
Reactors Physics, Design and Safety", International Centre for Theoretical
Physics, Miramare-Trieste, Italy, 15 April--17~May 1996, Proceedings
published by World Scientific, A. Gandini, G. Reffo eds, Vol. 2,
p. 424-532, (1998). (if you have problems finding this ref., please
go to, there should be a downloadable file)

Let me distinguish a few topics, and let me restrict (mostly) to pion

a) cross sections for N-N -> pi X: you can find a lot of material in the
   literature, as comprehensive reviews I would suggest:

    J.Bystricky et al., Energy dependence of nucleon-nucleon inelastic
    total cross sections, DPhPE 87-03, (1987). (this is also a Phys Rev
    paper but I do not have handy the final published reference)

    B.J.VerWest, and R.A.Arndt, Phys. Rev. C25, 1979 (1982).

b) Once you have cross sections, you still need extra infos (energy and
   angular distributions of emitted particles), what we presently use
   in Fluka is a mix of the original Fluka model and some other more
   recent data/approaches. The original model was:

    K.Hanssgen, and J. Ranft, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 88, 537 (1984).

   most of the ideas for particle production are ok, elastic and charge
   exchange reactions are no longer done following that approach (too
   rough), and also for particle production many data and angular
   distributions have been changed (there is alot of recent literature,
   let me know if you want further details/references).

c) Once you have N-N -> pi data, you need to transform them into N-A
   data and this on our side is done thru explicit intranuclear transport
   taking into account (VERY important) absorption processes.

I hope these infos are enough to start with, let me know if you need
further details!

                         best regards
                        Alfredo Ferrari

On Tue, 25 Feb 2003, John Norbury wrote:

> Dear Sir or Madam
> I am currently working with scientists at NASA Langley Research Center on
> developing the radiation transport code HZETRN.
> We are wanting to put meson production cross sections in our code.
> I would like to study the cross sections in FLUKA.
> Is there a way to get the formulas that you have used in FLUKA for the
> various hadron production modes ?
> I realize there is a lot of literature about all this, but I would like to
> be able to study the actual cross section formulas used in FLUKA.
> If you can help with this I would appreaciate it.
> thanks very much
> best regards
> john norbury
> ********************************************************************
> Professor John W. Norbury
> Physics Department
> University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
> P.O. Box 413
> Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201
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> email:
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> fax: (414) 229-5589
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