requests simulation of radioactive decays and sets the corresponding biasing and transport conditions See also DCYTIMES, DCYSCORE, IRRPROFIWHAT(1)= flag for activating radioactive decays = 1: radioactive decays activated for requested cooling times = 2: radioactive decays activated in semi-analogue mode = 0: ignored = -1: reset to defaultDefault= no radioactive decaysWHAT(2)= flag for "patching" isomer production, while waiting for a better production model = 1: isomer production "patching" activated = -1: isomer production "patching" disabled = 0: ignoredDefault: activated if non-analogue radioactive decays is requested, disabled otherwiseWHAT(3)= number of "replicas" of the decay of each individual residual = 0: ignored < 0: reset to defaultDefault: 1 for analogue decays, 3 otherwiseWHAT(4)= switch for applying various biasing features only to prompt particles, or only to particles originated in radioactive decays, or to both > 0.0: a 9-digit number "abcdefghi", where each "a-i" digit is interpreted as follows (but see Note 4): 0.0 = ignored 1.0 = the corresponding biasing is applied to prompt radiation only 2.0 = applied to decay radiation only 3.0 = applied to both prompt and decay radiation and the digit position is interpreted as follows: a = hadron/muon interaction length or decay biasing, as defined by command LAM-BIAS b = hadron/muon leading particle biasing (not defined at the moment) c = hadron/muon importance and Weight Window biasing, as defined by commands BIASING and WW-FACTOr d = e+/e-/gamma interaction length biasing, as defined by command EMF-BIAS e = e+/e-/gamma leading particle biasing, as defined by command EMF-BIAS f = e+/e-/gamma importance and Weight Window biasing, as defined by commands BIASING and WW-FACTOr g = low-energy neutron biased downscattering, as defined by command LOW-DOWN, and non-analogue absorption, as defined by LOW-BIAS h = no meaning for the time being i = low-energy neutron importance and Weight Window biasing, as defined by commands BIASING and WW-FACTOr = 0.0: ignored < 0.0: reset to defaultDefault: all biasing is applied to prompt showers only (equivalent to 111111111.)WHAT(5)= multiplication factors to be applied to e+/e-/gamma transport energy cutoffs, respectively for prompt and decay radiation > 0.0: a 10-digit number xxxxxyyyyy, where the first and the last 5 digits are interpreted as follows (see Note 5): xxxxx * 0.1 = transport energy cutoff multiplication factor for beta+, beta- and gamma decay radiation yyyyy * 0.1 = transport energy cutoff multiplication factor for prompt e+, e- and gamma radiation = 0.0: ignored < 0.0: reset to defaultDefault: e+, e- and gamma transport energy cutoffs are unchanged: the multiplication factors are set = 1.0 for both prompt and decay radiation (equivalent to 0001000010.)WHAT(6)= flag for generating beta+/beta- spectra with Coulomb and screening corrections. > 0.0: Coulomb and screening corrections activated = 0.0: ignored < 0.0: Coulomb abd screening corrections ignoredDefault: Coulomb and screening corrections are consideredSDUM= not usedDefault(option RADDECAY not given): no radioactive decay is activated, and no multiplication factors are applied to transport energy cutoffsNotes:1) FLUKA allows for two different ways of simulating radioactive decay. In the semi-analogue mode, (WHAT(1)> 1) each single radioactive nucleus is treated in a Monte Carlo way like all other unstable particles: a random decay time, random daughters, random radiation are selected and tracked. This allows for event-by-event analysis, with the time structure recorded in the particles age variable. It is called semi-analogue because the radiation spectra are inclusive (i.e. no correlated gamma cascade is reproduced, etc.) In the "activation study" mode (WHAT(1)=1) the time evolution is calculated analytically and all daughter nuclei and all associated radiation are considered, but at fixed times. (See Note 6). In both cases, the emitted particles are transported like all other secondaries, within the same run. 2) In the analytical evolution, each radioactive nucleus can be "decayed" several times, in order to improve statistics on, for instance, energy deposition, as set byWHAT(3). 3) Although FLUKA allows to simulate in a same run the transport of cascade particles and that of particles generated by decay of the produced residual nuclei, transport and biasing need in general to be set at very different levels. For instance, in a study of induced activity due to photonuclear reactions, it is recommended to set the photon transport threshold not lower than the photonuclear reaction threshold. However, gammas produced in the decay of those residual nuclei have in general lower energies and need to be transported with much lower energy cutoffs (see Note 5 below). 4) Biasing can be applied to radiation products. At present, for the biasing switch represented byWHAT(4), only the d, e and f choices are relevant since only beta+, beta- and gamma decays are considered for the time being. 5) Both multiplication factors imbedded inWHAT(5)must be >= 1.0. If any of the multiplication factors is set to a value larger than 9999.0, it is effectively considered as infinite, i.e.,WHAT(5)= 0000099999. will kill the electromagnetic cascade in the prompt part, while leaving it untouched in the decay part.WHAT(5)= 9999900000. will do the opposite. 6) It is possible to perform on-line time evolution of decay radiation, and to score all standard quantities (energy deposition, residuals...) according to a user-defined irradiation profile (IRRPROFI command) and one or more user-defined decay times (DCYTIMES command). Radiation transport will be performed only once, and the evolution will be applied as a weight depending on the setting of the estimator, to be defined with the DCYSCORE command. 7) If decays are simulated in semi-analogue mode, detector results are expressed per unit primary weight (possibly scoring together prompt and decay particles, if requested by DCYSCORE withWHAT(1)= -1.0). If decays are instead calculated for requested cooling times, the results are expressed per unit time (pSv/s, cm-2/s, Bq, etc.) 8) When the source is a radioactive isotope (defined by command BEAM withSDUM= ISOTOPE and by command HI-PROPErt), RADDECAY must be used in semi-analogue mode (WHAT(1)> 1). The detector results are then expressed per isotope decay. Note that command DCYSCORE must be issued withWHAT(1)= -1, and must be applying to all relevant estimators and detectors. Without DCYSCORE, no scoring will occur (see Note 8 to command BEAM). 9) Different transport cutoffs for prompt and decay e+/e-/gamma can be set also differently for each region by command EMFCUT withSDUM= PROMPT or DELAYED. WithWHAT(5)of RADDECAY it is possible only to define a ratio, identical for all regions.Example:RADDECAY 1.0 1.0 2.0 111000. 200.
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