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SCORE


    Defines the (generalised) particles producing the stars to be
    scored in each region.
    Requests scoring of energy deposition in each region.

    See also EVENTDAT, THRESHOLd, USRBIN

     
WHAT(1..4)
: id-numbers identifying the particles or generalised particles (see 5} for a list of particle numbers). Depending on the (generalised) particle type, different quantities are scored in each region (see Notes 3, 4a): * For hadrons, photons, muons: stars * For generalised particles 208.0 and 211.0: energy deposition (Notes 4b, 4c) * For generalised particles 219.0, 220.0 and 221.0: fissions (Note 4d) * For generalised particle 222.0, neutron balance (Note 4e) * For generalised particles 229.0 and 230.0: unbiased energy deposition (Note 4f) = 0.0: no scoring per region of any of the quantities listed above
Default
: 201.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 (score stars produced by all particles)
WHAT(5)
,
WHAT(6)
,
SDUM
: not used
Default
(option SCORE not given): no scoring by region = 0.0 : no scoring per region of stars or energy deposited
Default
: 201.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 (score stars produced by all particles)
WHAT(5)
,
WHAT(6)
,
SDUM
: not used
Default
(option SCORE not given): no star or dose scoring by region
Notes:
1) The possible particle numbers are those listed in 5}, i.e. -6.0 to 62.0 and 201.0 to 244.0. However, not all particles can produce stars and will give meaningful results. Selecting generalised particles 208.0 (energy) or 211.0 ("electromagnetic" energy, i.e. energy of electrons, positrons and gamma), one can score deposited energy (proportional to dose). 2) SCORE is one of the oldest FLUKA commands, which has been kept unchanged because of its simplicity and easiness of use. On the other hand, because it lacks the flexible memory allocation of all other scoring options, there is presently room for only 4 types of particles. Therefore, only the 4 first valid WHAT-parameters are retained. 3) A star is a hadronic inelastic interaction occurring at an energy higher than a threshold defined via the option THRESHOLd (or by default higher than the transport threshold of the interacting particle). Star scoring, traditionally used in most high-energy shielding codes, can therefore be considered as a form of crude collision estimator: multiplication of star density by the asymptotic value of the inelastic nuclear interaction length gives the fluence of hadrons having energy higher than the current threshold. However, this is meaningful only if the interaction length doesn't vary appreciably with energy; therefore it is recommended to set a scoring threshold = 50 MeV (using option THRESHOLd), since interaction lengths are practically constant above this energy. Besides, star densities calculated with a 50 MeV threshold are the basis of some established radiation protection techniques such as the omega-factors for estimating material activation (see [Tho88], p. 106), and the prediction of single isotope yields from the ratio of partial to inelastic cross section. Note that such techniques can still be used, although they have been made obsolete by more accurate modern FLUKA capabilities (commands DCYSCORE, DCYTIMES, IRRPROFI, RADDECAY, RESNUCLEi). 4) The SCORE card defines the following scoring: a - scoring by region the density of stars produced by the selected particles (if applicable, i.e. if the particles are hadrons - but not low-energy neutrons -, photons or muons, or families of them). Stars produced by primary particles can be scored with id-number 210.0 (BEAMPART), all stars with 201.0 (ALL-PART). Results will be in stars cm-3 per primary particle if region volumes have been input by setting IVLFLG=3 in the geometry title card (see 8}), otherwise in stars per region per primary. b - scoring by region the total energy density, if generalised particle 208 (ENERGY) has been selected. Results will be in GeV cm-3 per primary if volumes have been input, otherwise in GeV per region per primary. To obtain dose in Gy, multiply GeV/cm3 by 1.602176462E-7/rho (rho = density in g/cm3). c - scoring by region the energy density deposited by electrons, positrons and photons, if generalised particle 211 (EM-ENRGY) has been selected. Results as in the previous Note. d - scoring by region of fissions (or fission density), if generalised particles 219.0 (FISSIONS), 220.0 (HE-FISS) or 221.0 (LE-FISS) have been selected. These generalised particles refer to all fissions, high-energy fissions and low-energy neutron fissions respectively. Results are in fissions/cm3 per primary if volumes are input, otherwise in number of fissions per primary. e - scoring by region of the neutron balance (outgoing minus incoming neutrons), if generalised particle 222.0 (NEU-BALA) has been selected. Results are in net number of neutrons per cm3 per primary if volumes are input, otherwise in net neutrons per primary. f - generalised particles 229.0 (UNB-ENER) and 230.0 (UNB-EMEN) are similar respectively to 208.0 (ENERGY) and 211.0 (EM-ENRGY), with the difference that the energy deposited is scored with weight 1, independent of the actual weight of the particle. Of course, the results will have no physical meaning, but in some circumstances they will provide useful information about the run itself (for instance in order to optimise biasing). g - scoring as in all cases above but separately for each primary event, if the EVENTDAT option is used (see). 5) A more flexible way to score by region stars, deposited energy etc. is "region binning" by means of option USRBIN, Note 8). However, note that in that case the results are not normalised per unit volume. 6) In FLUKA. stars do not include spallations due to annihilating particles. 7) SCORE does NOT define scoring done via USRBDX, USRBIN, USRCOLL and USRTRACK.
Example 1:
* Score stars produced in each region by protons, high-energy neutrons and pions.
* Score also total energy deposition in each region.
*...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8
SCORE 1.0 8.0 209.0 208.0
Example 2:
* Score stars produced by primary particles (i.e., first interactions) in each
* region. Score also in each region stars produced by photons (photonuclear
* reactions) and energy deposited by electromagnetic showers.
*...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8
SCORE 210.0 7.0 211.0
Example 3:
* Score fissions produced in each region by high- and low-energy particles.
* Score also the net neutron production in each region, and the kaon stars.
*...+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6....+....7....+....8
SCORE 220.0 221.0 222.0 215.0

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