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FLUKA: 9.1} Main output Previous Index Next

9.1} Main output

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 The standard, or main, output is made of several different parts:

* A banner page
* A header with the FLUKA version and the time when the output was printed
* A straight echo of the input cards
Each input line is echoed in output, but not character by character. The input WHATs and SDUMs are read, and then written with a different format. Any alignment error shows up as a number or a character string different from the one intended: therefore in case of problems checking this part of the output is more effective than checking the input itself. Comments are reproduced in output, with the exception of in-line comments preceded by an exclamation mark (!)
* Geometry output (if not redirected to a separate file, see GEOBEGIN)
The geometry output (which is part of the standard output by default, but can be re-directed to a separate file) begins with an echo of the geometry title and the value of the two input variables IVLFLG (Input VoLume FLaG) and IDBG (in the original CG a debugging flag, but now used to select various format lengths). Then there in an echo of the body and region input, including comment line, and some lines left over from the original MORSE CG, but which are of little or no meaning in the context of FLUKA: for instance the arrays IR1 and IR2 (material and biasing assignment to regions, which in FLUKA are not part of the geometry data). Other information concerns the memory allocation: FPD (Floating Point Data), INTEGER ARRAY, zone locations ("zone" and "region" have a different meaning in MORSE, but not in FLUKA). "Code zones" indicates the sub-regions defined by the input OR operator. The next sections, "Interpreted body echo" and "Interpreted region echo", show the numbers assigned by the program to bodies and regions defined by alphanumerical identifiers (if the traditional fixed format has been used, these output sections are of little interest). The interpreted echos are followed by the volumes used to normalize a possible output from option SCORE. Then, for each region in whose description the OR operator is used, one line similar to the following is printed at the end of the geometry output: *** Region # 2 Dnear according to no overlapping ORs *** *** Region # 3 Dnear according to possible overlapping ORs *** This information concerns the possibility that random seed sequences might not be reproducible, a technical issue which does not affect the quality of the results but can be important for debugging or other purposes (see a more detailed explanation in a Note to option GLOBAL).
* Basic nuclear data used in the program
The data reported are nuclear masses and model parameters used by the program. This output section is constant and does not depend on the problem input (it is printed even if the calculation is purely electromagnetical and does not depend on nuclear models).
* Information on physical models used in the run
The nuclear models used by FLUKA to describe intermediate nuclear effects and interactions have been continuously improved since 1989. They are automatically activated if the user chooses the appropriate defaults. Depending on the latter and on the input options used, an informative message is issued concerning the presence of the following: Evaporation from residual nucleus Production of deexcitation gammas Transport of heavy evaporation products High Energy fission Fermi Break-Up
* Material quantities related to multiple scattering
The values of various quantities used by the FLUKA multiple Coulomb scattering algorithm are printed for each material and for each type of charged particle.
* Memory allocation information
Starting and ending location in memory of various arrays dynamically allocated are printed at different points on main output, depending on the order of input cards.
* Table of correspondence between materials used in the run and
materials in the low-energy neutron cross section library.
Example:
*** Fluka to Morse material correspondence: printed atomic densities are meaningless when used in a compound *** Fluka medium Name Morse medium atomic density Id. 1 Id. 2 Id. 3 number number ( at/(cm barn) ) 1 BLCKHOLE 0 0.0000E+00 0 0 0 2 VACUUM 1000 0.0000E+00 0 0 0 6 CARBON 1 0.0000E+00 6 -2 293 7 NITROGEN 2 0.0000E+00 7 -2 293 8 OXYGEN 3 5.3787E-05 8 16 293 17 LEAD 5 3.2988E-02 82 -2 293 21 ARGON 4 0.0000E+00 18 -2 293 Compounds are not listed in this table, since for the time being the FLUKA neutron library contains only single elements or nuclides. "Fluka medium number" refers to the material number given by the user via
WHAT(4)
in option MATERIAL; "Morse medium number" is the material index used internally by the FLUKA low-energy neutron package (originally derived from the MORSE code). Such index is assigned only to library materials actually used in the current problem, unlike "FLUKA media" which can be predefined or defined in input, without being actually assigned to any region. Blackhole and vacuum are always assigned Morse index 0 and 1000. Atomic densities refer to the material in its elemental form and are printed as 0.0000E+00 if the corresponding element is used only as part of a compound. The last 3 columns in the table are the material identifiers unique to each library material (see 10} and option LOW-MAT).
* Information on the low-energy neutron cross sections
If low-energy neutrons are transported, some problem-specific information may be printed, e.g. materials for which recoil or (n,p) protons are produced explicitly and not accounted for by kerma factors (usually hydrogen and nitrogen), or materials for which pointwise cross sections are used (see LOW-NEUT,
WHAT(6)
). This is followed by generic information on the neutron cross section library used (number of energy groups and angles, number of materials, etc.). If the user requests a more detailed printout (option LOW-NEUT) the following information is printed, depending on the value of
WHAT(4)
:
WHAT(4)
= 1.: for each neutron energy group: - group energy limits - average energies - velocities and momenta corresponding to the group energy limits - energy limits of each gamma group - thermal neutron velocities for each material used: availability of residual nuclei information and, for each neutron energy group: SIGT = total cross section in barn SIGST = "scattering" cross section in barn. Actually it is equal to sigma(n,n) + 2*sigma(n,2n) + 3*sigma(n,3n) etc. PNUP = upscatter probability (can be different from zero only if there are several thermal groups) PNABS = probability of Non-ABSorption (= scattering). It is = SIGST/SIGT, and can sometimes be > 1 because of (n,xn) reactions GAMGEN = GAMma GENeration probability = gamma production cross section divided by SIGT and multiplied by the average number of gammas per (n,gamma) reaction NU*FIS = fission neutron production = fission cross section divided by SIGT and multiplied by nu, the average number of neutrons per fission EDEP = Kerma contribution in GeV per collision PNEL, PXN, PFISS, PNGAM = partial cross sections, expressed as probabilities (i.e. ratios to SIGT). In the order: non-elastic, (n,xn), fission, (n,gamma) The line: (RESIDUAL NUCLEI INFORMATIONS AVAILABLE), if present, indicates the possibility to use option RESNUCLEi with
WHAT(1)
= 2.0.
WHAT(4)
= 2.: the same as above plus: for each material used and for each neutron energy group: - the downscattering matrix (group-to-group transfer probabilities), as in the following example: 1 CROSS SECTIONS FOR MEDIA 4 ............................................................. (RESIDUAL NUCLEI INFORMATIONS AVAILABLE) GROUP....DOWNSCATTER MATRIX ............................................................. 6....0.4927 0.0148 0.0006 0.0012 0.0017 0.0023 0.0028 0.0033 0.0038 0.0045 0.0056 0.0070 0.0087 0.0104 0.0120 0.0134 0.0149 0.0163 0.0175 0.0184 0.0190 0.0193 0.0193 0.0190 0.0185 0.0178 0.0164 0.0329 0.0311 0.0278 0.0247 0.0219 0.0198 0.0158 0.0126 0.0101 0.0112 0.0070 0.0026 0.0008 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 ............................................................. The above table means: after scattering in material 4 of a neutron in energy group 6, the probability of getting a neutron in the same group is 49.27%; that to get a neutron in the following group (group 7) is 1.48%, in group 8 is 0.06% etc. This matrix, normalised to 1, gives the relative probability of each neutron group: but the actual probability PER COLLISION must be obtained by multiplying by PNABS, the scattering cross section divided by the total cross section and multiplied by the average number of neutrons per non absorption reaction. - neutron-to-gamma group transfer probabilities, for instance: 1 NEUTRON TO GAMMA TRANSFERS FOR MEDIA 6 NEUT GROUP GAMGEN TRANSFER PROBABILITIES 1 1.7749E+00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0003 0.0002 0.0004 0.0008 0.0015 0.0027 0.0048 0.0084 0.0144 0.0239 0.0378 0.0686 0.0942 0.0967 0.1125 0.2830 0.1249 0.0625 0.0625 .............................................................. The meaning is similar to that explained above, except that each number refers to the probability of getting a gamma in the corresponding gamma group. Again, this matrix, normalised to 1, gives the relative probability of each gamma group: but the actual probability PER COLLISION must be obtained by multiplying by GAMGEN, the gamma production cross section divided by the total cross section and multiplied by the average number of gammas per (n,gamma) reaction
WHAT(4)
= 3.: the same as above plus: for each material used and for each neutron energy group: Cumulative scattering probabilities and scattering polar angle cosines as in the following example: 1 SCATTERING PROBABILITIES AND ANGLES FOR MEDIA NUMBER 4 GP TO GP PROB ANGLE PROB ANGLE PROB ANGLE ............................................................. 6 6 0.8736 0.9557 0.9823 0.3741 1.0000 -0.6421 6 7 0.4105 0.8383 0.8199 0.1057 1.0000 -0.7588 6 8 0.4444 0.0001 0.7223 0.7747 1.0000 -0.7746 6 9 0.4444 -0.0001 0.7223 -0.7746 1.0000 0.7746 6 10 0.4444 0.0000 0.7223 -0.7746 1.0000 0.7746 6 11 -1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 6 12 -1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 6 13 -1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 ............................................................. The above table reports 3 discrete angle cosines (corresponding to a Legendre P5 expansion) for each group-to-group scattering combination, with the respective cumulative probabilities. For instance, the line: 6 7 0.4105 0.8383 0.8199 0.1057 1.0000 -0.7588 means that neutron scattering from energy group 6 to group 7 has a 0.4105 probability to be at a polar angle of 33 degrees (0.8383 = cos(33deg)); a probability (0.8199 - 0.4105) = 0.4094 to be at 84 degrees = acos(0.1057); and a probability (1.000 - 0.8199) = 0.1801 to be at 139 degrees = acos(-0.7588). A -1.0000 probability indicates an isotropic distribution.
* Table of available particle types
This table presents constant properties of all particles transported by FLUKA (name, id number, rest mass and charge), plus two columns indicating: - the particles which are discarded, by default (neutrinos) or on user's request (option DISCARD) - the particle decay flag (see option PHYSICS, with
SDUM
= DECAYS) The available generalised particles and their id are also listed.
* An expanded summary of the input:
This part of output summarises the most important input data, decoded and presented in a more colloquial way. a. Beam properties: Information given by BEAM and BEAMPOS option: type of particle, energy/momentum, direction, etc. If a user SOURCE is used, it is indicated here b. Energy thresholds: Particle cutoff energies of hadrons and muons as set by default or by option PART-THR. Neutron cutoff means the threshold between high and low-energy (multi-group) neutron treatment. Low-energy neutron group cutoffs are reported by region in a separate table (see f. below). Electron and photon cutoffs are also reported in a separate table (see p. below). c. Ending conditions The maximum number of histories and stars and other ending options set in card START are summarised here d. Multiple scattering (hadrons and muons): There is a statement about a Coulomb scattering approximation level, but only for historical reasons. Presently only level 1 is available. The logical flags which follow are related to option MULSOPT with
SDUM
= GLOBAL or GLOBHAD. The number of single scatterings to be performed at boundary crossing is also printed. e. Treatment of electrons and photons, including multiple scattering For historical reasons dating from the time when FLUKA was handling only high-energy particles, this title of this part is "Electromagnetic Cascades". The logical flags which follow are related to option MULSOPT with
SDUM
= GLOBAL or GLOBEMF. The number of single scatterings to be performed at boundary crossing is also printed. f. Biasing parameters This table reports several region-dependent biasing and cutoff parameters: - Particle importances (set with
WHAT(1)
and
WHAT(3)
of option BIASING) - Russian Roulette factor (multiplicity biasing set with
WHAT(2)
of option BIASING) - Cutoff group (
WHAT(1)
of option LOW-BIAS) - Group limit for non-analogue absorption (
WHAT(1)
of option LOW-BIAS) - Non-analogue survival probability (
WHAT(3)
of option LOW-BIAS) - Group limit for biased downscattering (
WHAT(1)
of option LOW-DOWN) - Biasing downscattering factor (
WHAT(2)
of option LOW-DOWN) g. Estimators requested For each requested estimator (USRBIN, USRBDX, USRCOLL, USRTRACK, USRYIELD, RESNUCLEi, DETECT), a complete description is printed (detector number, particle type, defining region(s) or binning limits, number of intervals/bins, area/volume, linear/logarithmic, type of quantity etc.). If the estimator output file is formatted, the same information is printed also there in an identical format, otherwise it is available on the corresponding unformatted file. Note that the estimator detectors are numbered separately according to their estimator type (Bdrx n. 1, Bdrx n. 2 etc.; Binning n. 1, Binning n. 2 etc. - independent from the type of binning - Track n. 1, Track n. 2 etc.), in the order they appear in input. The estimator type and the detector number can be passed (as variables ISCRNG and JSCRNG in COMMON SCOHLP) to the user routines COMSCW and FLUSCW, to allow different kinds of weighting on the scored quantities, depending on the detector number (see 13}) h. Materials defined and pre-defined This table includes all materials pre-defined and not overridden by the user, plus those defined in the user input via options MATERIAL and COMPOUND, independent from the fact that they have been assigned or not to any region. The different columns report the material number, name, atomic number Z and atomic weight A (effective Z, A for compounds), density, inelastic and elastic scattering lengths for the primary particles at the energy defined by option BEAM (meaningful only for primary hadrons), radiation length (value not used by the program) and inelastic scattering length for neutrons at the threshold momentum for transition to the group treatment (by default 20 MeV unless overridden by PART-THR). For compounds, an insert is printed with the element composition, plus the atom fraction and partial density of each component. i. dE/dx tabulations (if requested, see DELTARAY) For each assigned material and for each charged heavy particle (hadrons, muons, recoil ions) a table is printed with the following data: energy, unrestricted stopping power, eta (= beta * gamma), shell correction, restricted stopping power (according to the threshold specified by the user with DELTARAY,
WHAT(1)
). j. Other stopping power information The following is printed for each material used: gas pressure (if applicable), average excitation energy, effective Z/A, Sternheimer density effect parameters, delta ray production, threshold, description level for stopping power fluctuations description level (set with IONFLUCT,
WHAT(1)
and
WHAT(3)
),and threshold for pair production and bremsstrahlung by heavy particles (set with PAIRBREM). k. Photonuclear reaction requests A line of information is printed for each material in which muon photonuclear interactions have been activated (see MUPHOTON). A similar information is printed for gamma photonuclear interactions, with the PHOTONUC flag for the relevant energy ranges. l. Table of correspondence between materials and regions This table corresponds to the ASSIGNMAt command and may be useful to check the material assignment to the various regions, as well as the regions where a magnetic field is present. The minimum step size set with option STEPSIZE is also reported. The last column refers to a maximum step size which has not yet been implemented. m. Rayleigh scattering requests A line of information is printed for each material in which Rayleigh scattering has been activated (option EMFRAY). n. Fluorescence requests For each material for which fluorescence X-ray production has been requested, information about the relevant photoelectric cross section edges is reported (option EMFFLUO). o. Table of correspondence between regions and EMF materials/biasing For each assigned material, this table reports the name, number (the internal numbering sequence is different in the EMF part of FLUKA), electron and photon energy cutoffs (set with EMFCUT), and four logical flags indicating whether some options have ben activated for the material concerned (T means on, F off). The meaning of the flags is: BIAS --> Leading Particle Biasing (LPB) (set by EMF-BIAS or EMFCUT) Ray. --> Rayleigh scattering (set by EMFRAY with
WHAT(1)
= 1., 2., 4. or 5.) S(q,Z) --> Compton binding corrections (EMFRAY with
WHAT(1)
= 1., 3., 4. or 6.) Pz(q,Z) --> Compton Doppler broadening (EMFRAY with
WHAT(1)
= 4. or 6.) The energy thresholds below which LPB is played for electrons and photons (
WHAT(2)
and
WHAT(3)
of EMF-BIAS) are also reported, and so is the LPB bit-code for selected effects (
WHAT(1)
of EMF-BIAS)
* Random number generator calls and CPU time for some histories
During the calculation, a couple of lines is printed time and again after a certain number of histories (or after each history, depending on
WHAT(5)
of option START). [Occasional warning messages printed during particle transport are found between the lines, especially if photonuclear reactions have been activated: they have mainly a temporary debugging purpose and should be ignored]. One of the two lines contains the number of random number generator calls, expressed as two integers I1, I2 in hexadecimal format (2Z8). The actual number of calls is equal to I2*1.E9 + I1. The second line reports, in the following order: the number of primary particles handled, the number of particles still to be handled (with respect to the maximum requested by
WHAT(1)
of START), the number of particles which can still be handled judging from the average time spent so far, the average time per primary based on the histories already completed, and the estimated time still available with respect to
WHAT(3)
of START. The sequence of random number call lines is terminated by a message (FEEDER is the FLUKA routine which starts every history): "All cases handled by feeder" if the whole number of particles requested in START has been completed "Run termination forced from outside" if the run has been shortened by the FLUKA "stop file" "Feeder ended due to timeout" if the time limit has been reached - see
WHAT(6)
of START or system-imposed time limit
* Results of SCORE option for all regions
Up to 4 different quantities (energy or star density) are printed at one line per region. The volume used for normalisation is also printed (equal to 1.0 unless a different value has been input by the user at the end of the geometry description). Even if SCORE has not been requested a line of zeros is printed for each region.
* Statistics of Coulomb scattering
The number of scatterings which were not performed or were performed without LDA (Lateral Displacement Algorithm) because they failed to satisfy Molière's conditions is reported here. This number is usually very small compared to the total number of scatterings, also reported. If single scatterings have been activated, their number is also printed.
* Russian Roulette/Splitting counters (if requested, see BIASING)
If the BIASING option has been used with
SDUM
= PRINT, the following statistics is printed for each region: "N. of RR" --> Number of Russian Roulette operations made on particles ENTERING that region "<Wt> in" --> Average weight of particles submitted to Russian Roulette when entering the region "<Wt> kil" --> Average weight of particles killed after being submitted to Russian Roulette when entering the region "N. of Sp" --> Number of splitting operations made on particles ENTERING the region "<Wt> in" --> Average weight of particles submitted to splitting when entering the region "<Wt> out" --> Average weight of particles after being submitted to splitting when entering the region Separate counters are printed for hadrons/muons, electrons/photons and low-energy neutrons (referring to importance biasing requested by BIASING respectively with
WHAT(1)
= 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0, or = 0.0 for all). The number of RR actually refers to "all particles which have not been splitted" (a particle crossing a boundary between two regions of equal importance is submitted neither to RR nor to splitting, but is counted as if it was a RR). Therefore, the counters can be used to calculate the following quantities, useful as a guide to set importances and weight windows: A = "N. of RR" + "N. of Sp" = total number of particles entering the region B = ("<Wt> in"_RR * "N. of RR") + ("<Wt> in"_Sp * "N. of Sp") = total weight of the particles entering the region B/A = average weight of the particles entering the region Note that RR and splitting arising from Weight-Window biasing (options WW-FACTOR, WW-THRESh, WW-PROFI) or from multiplicity biasing (
WHAT(2)
in option BIASING) are not accounted for in the counters.
* Final global statistics
At the end of a successful run, after a title: "STATISTICS OF THE RUN" the following are printed: - Total number of primary particles - Total weight of the primary particles (can be different from the previous one, especially if a user source has been used) - Total number of stars (hadron inelastic collisions) generated - Total weight of the stars generated
Note:
this statistics includes ALL hadron inelastic collisions, independent from any threshold set by option THRESHOLd. Therefore, this number of stars can be different from that obtained with SCORE or USRBIN. - Total number of low energy neutron interactions - Total weight of the low energy neutron interactions - Total CPU time used to describe all the histories - Average CPU time per history - Maximum CPU time used by a history - Time left before time limit (if applicable) A more detailed statistics of different quantities follows, including all regions. The contribution of each type of particle is given, normalised per unit weight of beam/source particles and also in percent of the total. - Stars (inelastic hadron interactions) - Secondaries created in inelastic hadron interactions - High-energy fissions - Decay products - Decayed particles For each particle the decay length at the decay position is also reported (decay length = c * tau, with tau = mean life) - Particles reaching cutoff energy - Secondaries created in low-energy neutron interactions Energy balance. Each main output ends with a global energy budget. The user should always check it to make sure that the calculation is not affected by any unphysical effect or mistake. The budget entries are: - Total energy "deposited" per unit weight of beam/source particle "Deposited" means actually "accounted for". This value should normally be equal to the average energy of the primary particles, except in the case of abnormal termination before the end of the first history. - Energy deposited by by ionisation This is energy deposited by continuous losses of heavy charged particles (hadron, muon and ion stopping power). Note that it depends on several user choices: => the thresholds set for delta ray production (energy transferred to electrons is accounted for in the next entry) => the transport thresholds (energy of stopping particles is counted in a separate entry below) => transport of light ion recoils (if not transported, their energy is deposited at the point of production and is recorded under a separate entry) - Energy deposited by electrons and positrons For historical reasons this is labelled as "by em-cascade". It may depend on delta ray thresholds (see above) - Energy deposited by nuclear recoils and heavy fragments This includes only ions which have not been transported - Energy of particles below threshold - Residual excitation energy This is excitation energy of nucleus which is left after evaporation and not emitted as prompt gamma de-excitation (e.g. radioactive decay energy) - Energy deposited by low energy neutrons This energy is deposited as kerma at the point of collision. It does not include the energy of hydrogen proton recoils and that of protons from the 14N(n,p)14C reaction. These protons are transported explicitly and their energy losses are accounted for as ionisation losses. - Escaping the system More generally, energy entering the blackhole, whether in the external region or in other blackhole regions defined by the user - Energy of discarded particles (Remember that neutrinos are always discarded by default) - Energy of particles out of time limit Can be different from zero only if the TIME-CUT option has been chosen for at least one type of particles - Missing energy This entry is calculated as the difference between the total energy and the sum of all the other entries. While it is usually extremely small in pure electromagnetic problems, it can take substantial values (positive or negative) in problems involving nuclear reactions. It is usually positive, since most nuclear reactions are endothermic (very roughly, about 8 MeV are spent to produce each secondary nucleon). However, most low energy neutron capture reactions are exothermic, and several MeV per capture are emitted as gamma rays. In problems with fissile materials such as 235U, the "missing" energy can reach very large negative values. Note that a similar, but more detailed energy balance can be obtained event by event with option EVENTDAT. See description below.
* Maximum size of the particle stack
The last line of information concerns the maximum number of particles that have been loaded in stack at any time. It is of little interest to most users. ========================================================================

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